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Table 3 Comparison of patient-reported EBC, therapeutic relationship and resource distribution between risk groups

From: Evidence-based care in high- and low-risk groups following whiplash injury: a multi-centre inception cohort study

Variables N All participants
(n = 160)
Low risk
(n = 24)
Medium risk
(n = 79)
High risk
(n = 48)
P-values
Diagnosis received, n (%) 159 112 (70%) 12 (50%) 58 (74%) 33 (69%) 0.080
 WAD   59 (37%) 7 (58%) 29 (50%) 17 (52%)  
 Other   53 (31%) 5 (42%) 29 (50%) 16 (49%) 0.871
Canadian Cervical Spine rule, n (%)
 Total x-rays required and received 152 109 (68%) 13 (59%)l* 52 (69%) l* 40 (87%) 0.026
 Total x-rays required and not received 152 30 (19%) 8 (36%)l* 14 (19%) l* 5 (11%) 0.042
 Total x-rays not required and received 152 6 (4%) 1 (5%) 5 (7%) 0 (0%) 0.206
 Total x-rays not required and not received 152 7 (4%) 0 (0%) 4 (5%) 1 (2%) 0.410
Total cases of Cervical Spine rule correctly applied 152 116 (73%) 13 (59%) 56 (75%) 41 (89%)* 0.018
Management of high – risk individuals
 Number referred, n (%) 159 45 (28%) 3 (13%) 22 (28%) 17 (36%) 0.124
 Time to referral, weeks, mean (SD) 40 4 (4) 2 (2) 4 (3) 5 (5) 0.477
 Referral appropriate, n (%) 144 30 (19%) 21 (88%)*** 45 (60%) 16 (36%) <  0.001
 Therapeutic relationship score (9–45/45), mean (SD) 131 40 (6) 38 (7) l* 42 (4) l* 39 (7) 0.031
 NDI sum score (0–50/50), mean (SD) 159 13 (11) 5 (7)**** 10 (9)**** 22 (10)**** <  0.001
 GPE (−5 to + 5), mean (SD) 158 3 (2) 4 (2) 3 (2) 1 (2)* < 0.001
 Resources booklet received, n (%) 159 28 (17%) 2 (8%) 12 (15%) 8 (19%) 0.512
 Resources booklet received from, n (%) 29      
  Insurer   6 (20%) 0 (0%) 2 (15%) 2 (22%)  
  Health practitioner   11 (40%) 2 (67%) 3 (23%) 6 (67%)  
  SIRA   9 (31%) 1 (33%) 6 (46%) 1 (11%)  
  Other   3 (10%) 0 (0%) 2 (15%) 0 (0%) 0.295
WAD-Evidence tool score
(range − 85-165), mean (SD)
160 61 (28) 59 (17) 60 (28) 63 (32) 0.931
  1. Abbreviations: GPE Global perceived effect, NDI Neck Disability Index, SIRA State Insurance Regulatory Authority, WAD Whiplash associated disorder
  2. Post hoc significance: ****low vs. med vs. high; *high vs. low and med; ***low vs. med and high; l*low vs. medium. p <  0.05. NB. Percentage scores for ‘all participants’ are calculated as a percentage of the 160 participants completing interviews