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Table 2 Baseline characteristics

From: Evidence-based care in high- and low-risk groups following whiplash injury: a multi-centre inception cohort study

Variables N All participants
(n = 215)
Lost to follow-up
(n = 53)
P-value Low risk
(n = 35)
Medium risk
(n = 106)
High risk
(n = 66)
P-value
Age, mean (SD), in years 205 42 (16) 41(15) 0.597 26 (6)**** 41 (17)**** 53 (12)**** <  0.001
Gender, n (%) 198        
 Male   89 (45) 21 (44) 0.848 12 (38) 43 (43) 32 (51) 0.432
 Female   109 (55) 27 (56) 20 (63) 56 (57) 31 (49)
Body Mass Index, mean (SD) 198 27.5 (7.4) 27.6 (7.1) 0.898 25.6 (6.2) 26.9 (6.3) 29.4 (9.1)* 0.035
Continent of birth, n (%) 204        
 Australia   128 (60) 30 (63) 0.952 26 (77) 65 (64) 32 (51) 0.114
 Europe   19 (9) 5 (10) 1 (3) 11 (11) 7 (11)
 Other   57 (27) 13 (27) 7 (21) 26 (26) 24 (38)
Marital status, n (%) 204        
 Never married   63 (29) 19 (40) 0.089 21 (62) 34 (33) 8 (13) <  0.001
 Married or de facto   113 (53) 20 (42) 11 (32) 57 (55) 43 (68)*
 Divorced, widowed or separated   28 (13) 9 (19) 2 (6) 12 (12) 12 (19)
Position in crash, n (%) 204        
 Driver   136 (63) 33 (69) 0.979 21 (62) 78 (76) 34 (54) 0.034
 Passenger   32 (15) 7 (15) 7 (21) 11 (11)** 14 (22)
 Motorcyclist   21 (10) 5 (10) 3 (9) 11 (11) 6 (10)
 Bicyclist or pedestrian   15 (7) 3 (6) 3 (9) 3 (3) 9 (14)
Hospital presentation, mean (SD), days 204 189 (88) 44 (92) 0.766 29 (85) 95 (92) 62 (98)* 0.049
Hospital LOS, mean (SD), in days 101 3.1 (3.4) 2.04 (1.5) 0.009* 2.07 (1.3) 3.1 (3.6) 3.6 (3.7) 0.412
Employment, mean (SD) 204        
 Paid work   125 (58) 28 (58) 0.328 26 (77) 68 (66) 28 (44) 0.001
 Self-employed   29 (14) 11 (23) 3 (9) 12 (12) 14 (22)
 Student   11 (5) 2 (4) 4 (12) 7 (7) 0 (0)*
 Retired   18 (8) 4 (8) 0 (0) 7 (7) 11 (18)
 Other   21 (10) 3 (6) 1 (3) 9 (9) 10 (16)
Occupation type 154        
 Professional   52 (24) 13 (33) 0.829 13 (45) 22 (28) 16 (38) 0.292
 Clerical and administrative   21 (10) 4 (10) 3 (10) 14 (18) 4 (10)
 Technical and trades   18 (8) 3 (8) 1 (3) 12 (15) 5 (12)
 Manager   22 (10) 7 (18) 2 (7) 13 (17) 6 (14)
 Community and personal services   19 (9) 5 (13) 7 (24) 7 (9) 5 (12)
 Other   22 (10) 7 (18) 3 (10) 12 (15) 6 (14)
Pain/ Disability
 NDI total score (0–50/50) 209 21 (9) 21 (10) 0.875 11 (4)**** 20 (9)**** 28 (5)**** <  0.001
 Pain during past week (NRS: 0–10/10) 210 7 (2) 7 (2) 0.618 6 (2) 6 (2) 8 (2)* <  0.001
 PCS total score (0–52/52) 209 22 (14) 24 (14) 0.302 16 (10) 20 (13) 30 (14)* <  0.001
 PCS- Rumination (0–16/16) 202 9 (5) 9 (5) 0.393 6 (4) 7 (4) 11 (5)* <  0.001
 PCS- Magnification (0–12/12) 203 6 (4) 6 (4) 0.175 4 (3) 5 (3) 7 (3)* <  0.001
 PCS- Helplessness (0–24/24) 202 10 (7) 10 (7) 0.239 6 (5) 8 (7) 12 (6)* <  0.001
 OMPQ total score (0–210/210) 203 53 (18) 54 (19) 0.500 46 (11) 49 (20) 65 (12)* <  0.001
 OMPQ expectations of recovery (0–10/10) 210 4 (3) 4 (3) 0.899 3 (2) 4 (3) 6 (3)* <  0.001
General Health
 SF −12: MCS (0–100/100) 209 43 (13) 43 (12) 0.887 49 (13) 43 (13) 38 (11)* <  0.001
 SF −12: PhCS (0–100/100) 209 33 (9) 33 (9) 0.790 37 (9) 34 (10) 28 (6)* <  0.001
 EQ5D 3 L         
  VAS pre-accident (0–100/100) 211 85 (12) 82 (14) 0.016* 86 (10) 85 (10) 84 (14) 0.786
  Pre-accident (0–1/1) 210 1 (0.1) 1 (0.2) 0.512 1 (0.1) 1 (0.1) 1 (0.2) 0.213
  Post-accident (0–1/1) 211 0.3 (0.3) 0.3 (0.4) 0.640 0.5 (0.3) 0.3 (0.4) 0.1 (0.3)* <  0.001
Psychological
 IES-R total score (0–88/88) 210 39 (24) 38 (22) 0.860 33 (22) 33 (23) 53 (21)* <  0.001
 IES-R total sub scale score (0–12/12) 213 5.2 (3.4) 4.5 (3.4) 0.103 5.1 (3.6) 5.2 (3.3) 5.1 (3.5) 0.963
 IES-R - Avoidance (0–4/4) 214 1.7 (1.2) 1.6 (1.1) 0.521 1.7 (1.3) 1.7 (1.1) 1.6 (1.2) 0.911
 IES-R - Intrusion (0–4/4) 214 1.7(1.2) 1.5 (1.2) 0.147 1.6 (1.2) 1.8 (1.2) 1.7 (1.3) 0.854
 IES-R - Hyperarousal (0–4/4) 204 1.8 (1.2) 1.5 (1.1) 0.010* 1.9 (1.2) 1.8 (1,1) 1.8 (1.2) 0.774
 PDS - Hyperarousal (0–15/15) 204 8 (4) 8 (4) 0.909 6 (5) 7 (4) 10 (3)* <  0.001
 DASS total score (0–63/63) 211 20 (18) 21 (19) 0.651 14 (16) 17 (16) 29 (18)* <  0.001
 DASS - Depression (0–21/21) 211 6 (6) 6 (6) 0.632 4 (6) 5 (5) 9 (7)* <  0.001
 DASS - Anxiety (0–21/21) 204 6 (6) 7 (7) 0.212 4 (5) 4 (5) 9 (6)* <  0.001
 DASS - Stress (0–21/21) 204 8 (7) 8 (7) 0.896 6 (7) 7 (6) 12 (6)* <  0.001
  1. Abbreviations: LOS Length of stay, NDI Neck Disability Index, NRS Numeric Rating Scale, PCS Pain Catastrophising Scale, OMPQ Orebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire, SF-12 Short-form 12 general health questionnaire, EQ5D 3 L Euro Quality of Life – 5 Dimensions - 3 Levels, IES-R Impact of Events Scale – revised, PTSD Post-traumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, DASS Depression, Anxiety and Stress scale
  2. Post hoc significance: ****low vs. med vs. high; *high vs. low and med; **med vs. low and high. p > 0.05