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Table 1 Whiplash Evidence Based Care Tool (“WAD-Evidence tool”). (Range: − 85 (poorest compliance) to + 165 (maximum compliance) with evidence based recommendations)

From: Evidence-based care in high- and low-risk groups following whiplash injury: a multi-centre inception cohort study

Key recommendation Measured by NHMRC Grade of
Recommendation:
Compliant Non-compliant
PART 1: Content
 Apply the Canadian C-Spine rule to determine whether an x-ray is required to confirm suspected fracture or dislocation Applied correctly A + 5 −5
Applied incorrectly A   
 Identify and provide evidence-based treatment Recommended treatments    
Advice B + 20 0
Exercise B + 20 0
Pharmacology Consensus + 20 0
Treatments not routinely recommended    
Manual therapy & manipulation C + 10 0
Acupuncture D + 10 0
Surgery Consensus + 10 0
Treatments with no evidence for or against their use    
Pilates Consensus 0 −5
Massage Consensus 0 −5
Cervical pillows Consensus 0 −5
Electrotherapy Consensus 0 −5
Treatments not routinely recommended    
Injections Consensus 0 −20
Collar A 0 −20
PART 2: Process
 Provide the appropriate number of treatments Number of treatments by risk level    
Low-risk N/A   
0–3   + 20 0
4–12   0 −5
13–20   0 −10
>  20   0 −20
High-risk N/A   
0–5   0 −5
6–16   + 20 0
17–24   0 −5
25–32   0 −10
>  32   0 −20
 Consider specialist referral if at-risk of non-recovery Low-risk (no referral)
High-risk (referral)
N/A + 20 0
Time to referral
<  6 weeks
N/A + 10 0
Referred to WAD specialist N/A + 20 0
Referred to other specialist N/A + 5 0
Total    165 −85