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Table 3 Implementation phase: Research questions, methods, study participants and target criteria with regards to patient safety

From: Communication and patient safety in gynecology and obstetrics - study protocol of an intervention study

Stage Research questions Methods Target group/data source Outcome measures
A What is the status of communication competences? Questionnaire (self-developed) Healthcare providers Communication competences as described by the SACCIA framework
  What is the prevalence of pAEs? Routine data
Mixed Methods study, Analysis of birth protocols (observations), staff questionnaire
Anonymous routine data of the hospital from the last year (2018), birth protocols and patient records, subjective prevalence Quality indicators: pAEs such as unavailable staff, equipment failure, readmissions, length of stay, communication errors
B What are effective interventions to improve safety and communication in everyday hospital life? Scoping review Pubmed, PsychInfo, Cochrane Database
Web of Science Core Collection database1
Overview of effective interventions and effect sizes
C What is the adherence for current patient safety measures (e.g., hand hygiene)? Questionnaire, e.g., HI-23 All professionals at both intervention sites Adherence to patient safety measures; relationships between adherence and quality indicators incl. patients’ satisfaction with their treatment and professionals work satisfaction
D What are the resources and barriers for the implementation of an intervention in order to optimize communication in everyday hospital life? Ethnographic observation; Individual semi-structured and focus group interviews Physicians, nursing staff, training assistants, psychologists, midwives Resources and barriers classified according to: (1.) intervention characteristics; (2.) societal context, (3.) implementation characteristics, (4.) institutional characteristics, (5.) social context, (6.) professional characteristics, and (7.) patient characteristics.
E What is an appropriate strategy to implement effective interventions to optimize communication? Intervention mapping with the method of Bartholomew and Kok (2011), triangulation of results from previous stages Matching of data from interviews, focus groups and questionnaires with evidence from the literature Implementation strategy tailored to the found resources and barriers to the implementation of effective interventions to increase patient safety
  1. Note: pAEs = preventable adverse events; the content of this table is based on Table 2 in [63]
  2. 1The literature search for this paper used the following search term combinations:
  3. Communication Training/Intervention AND Resource AND Implementation AND Health Experts
  4. Communication Training/Intervention AND Barrier AND Implementation AND Professionals/Patients
  5. Communication Training/Intervention AND Resource/Barrier AND Outcome Expectancies
  6. We always maintained “Communication, Training, Intervention, Resource, Barrier” as search terms and will refine the larger searches with the following terms: Intention, plan, behavior, social-cognitive