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Table 3 Determinants of visiting the doctor (for various reasons). Results of logistic regressions (1 = yes, visiting the doctor for this reason; 0 = otherwise)

From: Are perceived bad working conditions and perceived workplace bullying associated with doctor visits? Results of the nationally representative German General Social Survey

Independent variables (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)
Reason for doctor visit: Acute illness - Men Reason for doctor visit: Acute illness - Women Reason for doctor visit: Chronic illness – Men Reason for doctor visit: Chronic illness - Women Reason for doctor visit: Felt unwell - Men Reason for doctor visit: Felt unwell - Women Reason for doctor visit: Requesting advice - Men Reason for doctor visit: Requesting advice - Women Reason for doctor visit: Visit to the doctor’s office (without consulting the doctor) - Men Reason for doctor visit: Visit to the doctor’s surgery (without consulting the doctor) - Women Reason for doctor visit: Preventive medical check-up/vaccination – Men Reason for doctor visit: Preventive medical check-up/vaccination - Women
Control variables
Noise, dust, gases, vapours, bad air: - yes, somewhat (Ref.: yes, strongly) 0.54* 1.20 0.68 0.73 0.37* 1.02 1.55 1.01 1.10 1.89 1.55 1.04
(0.32–0.90) (0.64–2.25) (0.35–1.32) (0.33–1.62) (0.16–0.89) (0.34–2.99) (0.64–3.75) (0.37–2.76) (0.52–2.31) (0.79–4.55) (0.87–2.75) (0.53–2.01)
- no, not at all 0.56* 0.91 0.97 0.53+ 0.62 1.15 1.87 1.09 1.49 1.72 0.95 1.33
(0.33–0.96) (0.51–1.63) (0.48–1.97) (0.25–1.10) (0.27–1.45) (0.42–3.10) (0.71–4.96) (0.42–2.81) (0.71–3.11) (0.74–3.99) (0.52–1.75) (0.73–2.40)
Time/performance pressure: - yes, somewhat (Ref.: yes, strongly) 1.10 0.87 0.69 1.36 0.91 0.37** 1.64 0.55+ 1.42 0.55* 0.66+ 1.04
(0.73–1.65) (0.56–1.35) (0.40–1.19) (0.73–2.52) (0.39–2.12) (0.18–0.75) (0.89–3.02) (0.27–1.11) (0.76–2.64) (0.32–0.94) (0.42–1.02) (0.68–1.61)
- no, not at all 1.89* 0.98 0.65 0.88 1.67 0.32* 0.87 0.93 0.75 0.83 0.61 0.64
(1.07–3.34) (0.53–1.81) (0.31–1.35) (0.37–2.12) (0.56–4.99) (0.11–0.95) (0.32–2.41) (0.34–2.48) (0.31–1.84) (0.38–1.84) (0.32–1.17) (0.33–1.22)
Bad working atmosphere: - yes, somewhat (Ref.: yes, strongly) 0.94 0.64 1.22 1.67 0.78 1.26 0.88 2.80 0.98 7.81* 1.78 2.21
(0.39–2.25) (0.26–1.57) (0.41–3.62) (0.40–6.97) (0.24–2.60) (0.32–4.96) (0.27–2.83) (0.30–25.83) (0.21–4.51) (1.06–57.77) (0.52–6.14) (0.75–6.54)
- no, not at all 0.75 0.61 1.26 3.02 0.82 1.24 0.60 2.65 1.89 3.61 2.65 2.48+
(0.31–1.83) (0.25–1.49) (0.42–3.84) (0.67–13.62) (0.23–2.93) (0.29–5.26) (0.19–1.93) (0.29–24.00) (0.40–8.82) (0.51–25.47) (0.75–9.44) (0.84–7.30)
Overtime, long working hours: - yes, somewhat (Ref.: yes, strongly) 1.30 1.29 0.85 0.54 0.82 1.42 0.35** 0.70 1.78 1.19 1.04 0.97
(0.82–2.06) (0.73–2.29) (0.44–1.62) (0.25–1.20) (0.34–2.01) (0.53–3.79) (0.17–0.72) (0.32–1.54) (0.82–3.87) (0.55–2.56) (0.64–1.72) (0.55–1.69)
- no, not at all 1.15 1.32 1.16 0.77 1.08 1.41 0.34** 0.52 1.48 1.63 0.87 1.00
(0.69–1.94) (0.71–2.45) (0.56–2.40) (0.33–1.79) (0.41–2.85) (0.49–4.05) (0.16–0.73) (0.21–1.30) (0.63–3.46) (0.76–3.49) (0.49–1.54) (0.56–1.81)
Shifts or night work: - yes, somewhat (Ref.: yes, strongly) 0.99 1.15 0.89 0.80 2.02 0.87 0.71 0.61 0.72 0.97 0.83 0.53
(0.51–1.94) (0.44–3.05) (0.39–2.01) (0.22–2.87) (0.73–5.62) (0.16–4.83) (0.27–1.88) (0.08–4.40) (0.28–1.84) (0.31–3.07) (0.37–1.85) (0.21–1.34)
- no, not at all 0.62 1.50 1.04 0.48 0.86 1.28 0.67 1.54 0.81 1.14 1.64 0.49+
(0.35–1.10) (0.73–3.07) (0.51–2.13) (0.19–1.25) (0.33–2.19) (0.46–3.57) (0.30–1.51) (0.45–5.22) (0.35–1.86) (0.47–2.73) (0.81–3.31) (0.23–1.04)
Hard physical labour: - yes, somewhat (Ref.: yes, strongly) 0.85 1.59 1.13 1.11 1.92 0.71 0.75 1.03 2.02 0.98 1.35 1.16
(0.47–1.53) (0.74–3.44) (0.50–2.55) (0.37–3.29) (0.70–5.25) (0.24–2.06) (0.31–1.77) (0.28–3.84) (0.80–5.11) (0.37–2.65) (0.69–2.64) (0.52–2.59)
- no, not at all 1.03 1.52 1.58 1.62 2.14 1.33 0.78 1.30 2.40* 0.57 0.97 1.56
(0.55–1.95) (0.71–3.25) (0.66–3.75) (0.57–4.58) (0.78–5.87) (0.51–3.46) (0.30–2.01) (0.37–4.55) (1.01–5.70) (0.19–1.65) (0.48–1.98) (0.69–3.53)
Workplace bullying: - Sometimes (Ref.: often) 0.32* 0.91 0.70 1.37 0.39 2.13 3.04 1.96 0.96 0.58 0.98 0.68
(0.11–0.91) (0.35–2.34) (0.20–2.42) (0.39–4.77) (0.10–1.52) (0.45–10.00) (0.52–17.88) (0.20–18.79) (0.18–5.01) (0.13–2.51) (0.26–3.70) (0.23–2.02)
- Seldom 0.33* 0.86 0.47 0.88 0.25* 0.97 2.00 1.26 0.47 1.69 1.24 1.04
(0.12–0.91) (0.34–2.14) (0.14–1.57) (0.24–3.21) (0.07–0.97) (0.19–4.86) (0.35–11.54) (0.12–13.32) (0.09–2.38) (0.45–6.30) (0.34–4.54) (0.37–2.89)
- Never 0.30* 0.72 0.59 0.98 0.26+ 0.64 2.77 2.20 0.53 1.42 1.08 0.83
(0.11–0.82) (0.28–1.81) (0.17–2.02) (0.25–3.88) (0.07–1.02) (0.13–3.25) (0.48–15.83) (0.23–21.58) (0.11–2.60) (0.36–5.68) (0.29–3.99) (0.29–2.37)
Constant 18.07** 3.69 0.10* 0.03** 0.40 0.06+ 0.02* 0.04 0.00*** 0.02** 0.03*** 0.14+
(2.90–112.56) (0.56–24.55) (0.01–0.74) (0.00–0.37) (0.03–5.23) (0.00–1.10) (0.00–0.37) (0.00–1.97) (0.00–0.04) (0.00–0.36) (0.00–0.21) (0.02–1.24)
Observations 645 572 642 577 645 577 642 561 642 577 645 579
Pseudo R2 0.083 0.068 0.160 0.253 0.109 0.104 0.093 0.064 0.131 0.087 0.059 0.052
  1. All estimates include age, marital status, educational level, smoking status, BMI category, impairments (climb stairs; everyday tasks) and morbidity as potential confounders. Odds Ratios were reported; 95%-confidence intervals in parentheses; *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05, + p < 0.10