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Table 5 Subgroup analyses: treatment effects within two STarT Back risk groups

From: Feasibility and long-term efficacy of a proactive health program in the treatment of chronic back pain: a randomized controlled trial

Primary outcomes STarT-G score at baseline (0–3)
(low risk of back pain chronification)
STarT-G score at baseline > 3 (= medium or high risk of back pain chronification)
IG (N = 100)
M +
(95% CI)
CG (N = 162)
M +
(95% CI)
Between group effects IG (N = 89)
M +
(95% CI)
CG (N = 93)
M +
(95% CI)
Between group effects
p Cohen’s d *
[95% CI]
p Cohen’s d *
[95% CI]
Back pain severity (CPGQ) pain intensity (0–100) 33.3 (29.9–36.7) 32.3 (29.6–34.9) 0.632 0.06 (−0.19 to 0.31) 47.5 (43.8–51.3) 54.9 (51.2–58.6) 0.007 −0.41(− 0.70 to − 0.11)
disability points (0–6) 1.1 (0.8–1.4) 1.1 (0.9–1.4) 0.778 0 (− 0.25 to 0.25) 2.5 (2.1–2.9) 3.2 (2.8–3.5) 0.018 − 0.36(− 0.65 to − 0.06)
Health- related quality of life (SF-12) physical component (0–100) 46.3 (44.6–48.1) 45.4 (44.1–46.8) 0.416 0.10 (− 0.15 to 0.35) 38.5 (36.6–40.3) 34.6 (32.8–36.5) 0.005 0.43 (0.13 to 0.72)
mental component (0–100) 48.0 (46.2–49.9) 50.1 (48.6–51.5) 0.090 −0.22 (− 0.47 to 0.03) 44.7 (42.4–46.9) 41.9 (39.7–44.1) 0.094 0.25 (− 0.04 to 0.55)
  1. IG intervention group, CG control group, p significance value, M +: values of the group means adjusted for baseline-score, StarT-G total risk score and satisfaction with medical care of back pain at baseline, CI Confidence interval, CPGQ Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire; SF-12: Short From 12
  2. Cohen’s d*: if higher scores of the outcome parameter describe worse health condition (GCPS-parameters), minus d means IG is superior to CG and plus d means IG is worse than CG; if higher scores describe better health conditions (SF-12 parameters), minus d signifies IG is inferior to CG and plus d means IG is better than CG