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Table 3 Within-group changes in IG and CG on primary and secondary outcomes

From: Feasibility and long-term efficacy of a proactive health program in the treatment of chronic back pain: a randomized controlled trial

  Baseline 24 m post Baseline 24 m post Within group
M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) p / SRM p / SRM
IG (N = 189) CG (N = 255) IG KG
Back pain Severity (CPGQ) characteristic pain intensity (0–100%) 46.3 (19.1) 39.9 (21.8) 44.3 (20.4) 40.6 (22.2) < 0.001 / 0.32 0.001 / 0.21
disability points (0–6) 2.6 (2.1) 1.8 (2.1) 2.2 (2.2) 1.9 (2.1) < 0.001 / 0.37 0.005 / 0.18
Health-related quality of life (SF-12) physical component (0–100) 37.6 (9.2) 42.3 (10.1) 40.5 (11.1) 41.7 (10.8) < 0.001 / -0.48 0.058 / –0.12
mental component (0–100) 46.5 (12.3) 47.2 (10.3) 44.5 (12.1) 46.5 (12.2) 0.384 / –0.06 0.004 / –0.18
Psychological distress (PHQ-4) sum score (0–12) 3.4 (2.9) 2.8 (2.7) 3.4 (2.8) 3.1 (2.6) < 0.001 / 0.21 0.076 / 0.11
Risk of chronifi-cation (STarT-G) total score (0–9) 3.7 (2.2) 2.8 (2.3) 3.1 (2.3) 2.9 (2.3) < 0.001 / 0.38 0.077 / 0.11
Physical activitya days per week with at least 10 min physical activity (0–7) 2.2 (1.6) 2.6 (1.6) 2.5 (1.8) 2.5 (1.7) < 0.001 / –0.28 1.0 / 0.0
  1. CPGQ Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire, SF-12 Short Form 12, PHQ-4 Patient Health Questionnaire 4, STarT-G Keele STarT back Screening Tool, German Version;
  2. aphysically active in a way that one starts to sweat or gets out of breath; M: mean; SD: standard deviation; 24 m post: 24 months follow-up; IG: intervention group; CG: control group; p: significance value (from dependent sample t-test);
  3. SRM Standardized response mean, minus SRM: if higher scores of the outcome parameter describe worse health condition (e.g. pain intensity or disability points), minus SMR indicates deterioration over time; if higher scores describe better health conditions (e.g. SF-12 parameters), minus SRM indicates improvement over time