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Table 2 Characteristics of study participants at baseline (complete data set)

From: Feasibility and long-term efficacy of a proactive health program in the treatment of chronic back pain: a randomized controlled trial

Characteristics Total (N = 444) IG (N = 189) CG (N = 255)
N (%)/ M (SD) N (%)/ M (SD) N (%)/ M (SD)
Gender female 163 (36.7%) 60 (31.7%) 103 (40.4%)
Age years 53.5 (8.5) 53.4 (8.1) 53.6 (8.7)
Schooling maximum 9 years 52 (12.0%) 23 (12.5%) 29 (11.6%)
10/11 years 183 (42.1%) 79 (42.9%) 104 (41.4%)
12/13 years 200 (46.0%) 82 (44.6%) 118 (47.0%)
Region urban areas 342 (77.0%) 155 (82.0%) 187 (73.3%)
rural areas 102 (23.0%) 34 (18.0%) 68 (26.6%)
Back pain severity (CPGQ) grade I 180 (40.6%) 64 (33.9%) 116(45.5%)
grade II 62 (14.0%) 26 (13.8%) 36 (14.1%)
grade III 101 (22.7%) 52 (27.5%) 49 (19.2%)
grade IV 101 (22.7%) 47 (24.9%) 54 (21.2%)
General health (SF-12, single item) fair/poor 180 (40.5%) 83 (43.9%) 97 (38.0%)
Psychological distress (PHQ-4) no distress (< 3) 194 (43.7%) 79 (41.8%) 115 (45.1%)
Risk of back pain chronification (STarT-G) low (0–3) 262 (59.0%) 100 (52.9%) 162 (63.5%)
medium (4–7) 135 (30.4%) 64 (33.9%) 71 (27.8%)
high (8–9) 47 (10.6%) 25 (13.2%) 22 (8.6%)
Body mass index kg/m2 27.4 (4.8) 27.6 (4.8) 27.2 (4.9)
Sedentary timea 75% or more 212 (47.7%) 99 (52.4%) 113 (44.3%)
Sports activity (last 3 months) no sports (yes) 96 (21.6%) 42 (22.2%) 54 (21.2%)
Satisfied with medical care of back pain (NRS) 0 = not at all content;10 = very content 6.2 (2.7) 5.7 (3.0) 6.5 (2.5)
  1. N number valid cases, M mean, SD Standard deviation, NRS Numeric rating scale, IG Intervention group, CG Control group, CPGQ Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire according to v. Korff; STarT: Screening Instrument STarT Back Tool; SF 12: 12 Items Short Form questionnaire, PHQ-4 Patient Health Questionnaire-4; atime spent sitting on a typical day