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Table 1 Search keys to identify potential study participants based on health insurance billing data

From: Feasibility and long-term efficacy of a proactive health program in the treatment of chronic back pain: a randomized controlled trial

Inclusion criteria - at least 18 years
- at least 2 cases assigned to ICD codes M40-M54 (dorsopathies)
- at least one of the following three:
 • one or more cases of temporary work disability in the past 12 months assigned to ICD codes M40-M54 or
 • two or more opioid prescriptions or
 • one or more cases from the following list of ICD-10 codes: F32 depressive episode; F33 recurrent depressive disorder; F34 persistent mood [affective] disorders; F38 other mood [affective] disorders; F41.2 mixed anxiety and depressive disorder; F43.2 adjustment disorders; F45.4 persistent somatoform pain disorder; F48.0 neurasthenia; F54 psychological and behavioral factors associated with disorders or diseases classified elsewhere; F62.8 chronic pain personality syndrome
Exclusion criteria - nursing care level II or III (long-term care insurance act, SGB XI)
- in the past 12 months more than one billing and settlement for the same diagnosis or for 5
or more different diagnoses from the following list of ICD-10 codes:
 • B16.-16.9 acute hepatitis B; B17.1 acute hepatitis C; B20–24 human immunodeficiency virus; D00-D09.9 in situ neoplasms; F00-F09 organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders; F10-F19 mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use without F17 (mental and behavioral disorders due to use of tobacco; F20-F29 schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders; F30 manic episode; F31 bipolar affective disorder; F42 obsessive-compulsive disorder; F60 specific personality disorders; G00–09 inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system; G10 Huntington disease; G13 systemic atrophies primarily affecting central nervous system in diseases classified elsewhere; G23 other degenerative diseases of basal ganglia; G30–32 other degenerative diseases of the nervous system; G37.9 demyelinating disease of central nervous system, unspecified; G92 toxic encephalopathy; G93 other disorders of brain; H54.0 blindness, binocular; H91.3 deaf mutism, not elsewhere classified; I64 stroke, not specified as hemorrhage or infarction; K74 fibrosis and cirrhosis of liver; N18 chronic kidney disease; R54 senility