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Table 3 Percentage of individuals with type 2 diabetes receiving glucose lowering-, antihypertensive- and lipid lowering medications by ethnicity

From: Ethnic and gender differences in the management of type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study from Norwegian general practice

Medication
% (95% CI)
Ethnicity
WesternersEastern EuropeansEastern AsiansSouth AsiansMENA aEastern Africans
N8495184218798340126
Glucose lowering
 Life style modification alone34.0 (29.0 to 39.0)25.7 (17.4 to 33.9)25.2 (17.7 to 32.7)29.5 (23.4 to 35.7)27.9 (20.8 to 35.0)27.5 (17.2 to 37.7)
 All agents without insulin51.5 (49.0 to 54.0)57.5 (49.8 to 65.2)62.1 (54.2 to 70.0)*58.6 (53.8 to 63.4)63.3 (55.2 to 71.4)*66.7 (56.6 to 76.7)*
 Insulin alone5.8 (5.2 to 6.4)6.7 (2.9 to 10.4)4.3 (1.4 to 7.3)4.3 (2.8 to 5.8)2.4 (0.9 to 3.9)*6.0 (0.8 to 11.1)
 Insulin combined with other agents9.5 (8.6 to 10.3)11.7 (7.1 to 16.3)9.9 (5.5 to 14.4)16.8 (13.8 to 19.7)*10.4 (7.1 to 13.6)7.1 (1.9 to 12.4)
Number of agents
 135.6 (33.5 to 37.7)29.2 (20.8 to 37.6)42.2 (34.0 to 50.4)36.6 (33.1 to 40.2)35.1 (27.2 to 43.0)47.6 (36.1 to 59.2)
 221.7 (20.4 to 23.0)26.7 (18.9 to 34.5)23.6 (18.9 to 28.3)27.7 (22.9 to 32.5)23.5 (18.9 to 28.1)27.4 (17.9 to 36.9)
 ≥39.5 (8.7 to 10.2)20.1 (12.5 to 27.5)*10.6 (5.4 to 15.7)15.2 (12.8 to 17.7)*17.5 (12.4 to 22.6)*4.8 (1.2 to 8.3)
Antihypertensive66.2 (61.5 to 70.8)60.1 (51.1 to 69.1)61.7 (53.4 to 69.9)53.6 (47.1 to 60.1)*47.4 (39.6 to 55.3)*36.1 (25.0 to 47.2)*
Lipid lowering54.1 (49.8 to 58.4)53.5 (44.3 to 62.7)47.8 (39.4 to 56.3)50.6 (44.6 to 56.6)46.1 (38.7 to 53.5)24.0 (14.6 to 33.5)*
  1. a MENA: Middle Easterners/North Africans. Multilevel binary regression models with random effects at general practice level were used to compare the ethnic differences with Westerners as reference, adjusted for individuals level characteristics (age, gender, diabetes duration and education), general practitioner level characteristics (gender, specialist status and years working as general practitioner in Norway) and county of residence in Norway. * No overlap in 95% CIs, indicating significant difference between Westerners and the particular minority group