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Table 2 Percentage of individuals with type 2 diabetes receiving specific processes of care by ethnicity and gender

From: Ethnic and gender differences in the management of type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study from Norwegian general practice

Features recorded in electronic health records % (95% CI)Ethnicity
WesternersEastern EuropeansEastern AsiansSouth AsiansMENA aEastern Africans
Men, n46981037643020080
 HbA1c89.2 (87.4 to 91.0)86.5 (78.8 to 94.2)88.8 (81.5 to 96.1)92.8 (89.9 to 95.7)89.2 (84.4 to 94.0)89.2 (82.1 to 96.4)
 Blood pressure89.0 (87.4 to 90.6)82.3 (73.9 to 90.8)90.2 (83.4 to 96.9)91.6 (88.5 to 94.7)87.6 (82.8 to 92.6)84.3 (75.9 to 92.7)
 LDL-cholesterol68.7 (64.7 to 72.8)71.6 (60.8 to 82.4)72.8 (60.9 to 84.7)73.1 (66.7 to 79.4)73.7 (65.9 to 81.6)66.4 (53.6 to 79.2)
 Creatinine/ e-GFR82.13 (80.6 to 85.6)80.0 (71.0 to 89.0)82.9 (74.4 to 91.8)84.3 (79.8 to 88.9)83.7 (78.0 to 89.5)84.9 (76.9 to 93.0)
 Albuminuria23.4 (17.0 to 29.9)25.0 (13.5 to 36.5)25.4 (13.2 to 37.7)17.6 (11.1 to 24.2)22.4 (13.5 to 31.2)25.0 (12.5 to 37.5)
 Body height75.8 (71.1 to 80.6)64.8 (52.9 to 76.8)67.8 (55.2 to 80.5)62.3 (43.0 to 70.3)*59.5 (48.8 to 68.3)*51.9 (37.9 to 66.0)*
 Body weight58.1 (52.5 to 63.7)42.7 (30.3 to 55.2)48.1 (34.3 to 61.8)43.9 (35.9 to 51.9)*40.0 (30.4 to 49.5)*43.8 (30.0 to 57.5)
 Eye examination60.7 (57.9 to 63.6)61.8 (51.8 to 71.8)62.1 (51.6 to 72.6)62.4 (56.9 to 68.0)56.4 (48.9 to 63.8)67.0 (56.4 to 77.6)
 Foot examinations30.3 (26.6 to 34.0)24.9 (15.0 to 34.9)22.4 (11.4 to 33.4)25.6 (19.3 to 31.8)24.8 (17.1 to 32.4)24.6 (13.3 to 35.9)
 Smoking habits85.8 (83.0 to 88.7)83.0 (74.3 to 91.6)88.0 (79.9 to 96.0)81.0 (75.2 to 86.7)85.5 (79.5 to 91.5)61.4 (47.8 to 75.1)*
Women, n37978114236814046
 HbA1c91.3 (90.1 to 92.5)86.2 (77.3 to 95.2)89.2 (83.2 to 95.2)91.9 (88.0 to 95.7)93.7 (88.3 to 99.2)79.7 (63.7 to 95.5)
 Blood pressure88.7 (87.4 to 90.1)90.7 (83.6 to 97.9)89.6 (84.1 to 95.1)87.1 (82.6 to 91.7)91.6 (86.2 to 97.1)85.2 (72.9 to 97.5)
 LDL-cholesterol70.0 (66.3 to 73.8)59.5 (45.9 to 73.2)66.7 (56.86 to 76.6)65.2 (57.6 to 72.8)62.8 (51.6 to 74.1)51.7 (32.5 to 70.9)
 Creatinine/ e-GFR87.0 (85.0 to 89.1)82.7 (73.1 to 92.3)84.7 (78.1 to 91.3)86.9 (82.2 to 91.6)85.0 (77.6 to 92.4)77.5 (62.5 to 92.4)
 Albuminuria23.6 (17.9 to 29.3)19.7 (9.2 to 30.2)23.1 (13.9 to 32.3)23.7 (16.1 to 31.3)19.3 (10.6 to 28.0)19.9 (6.0 to 33.9)
 Body height72.6 (68.1 to 77.1)76.9 (65.8 to 87.7)69.7 (60.0 to 79.4)63.9 (55.9 to 71.9)66.8 (55.7 to 77.9)68.3 (49.5 to 87.0)
 Body weight53.1 (47.4 to 58.7)56.3 (42.7 to 69.9)43.4 (32.7 to 54.0)49.0 (40.7 to 57.3)51.7 (40.2 to 63.2)41.6 (23.7 to 59.5)
 Eye examination63.1 (64.0 to 66.0)53.5 (41.5 to 65.4)73.0 (65.4 to 80.7)65.0 (59.1 to 70.9)66.1 (57.5 to 74.8)69.2 (54.7 to 83.7)
 Foot examination29.3 (25.3 to 33.3)25.1 (13.0 to 37.1)25.7 (16.5 to 34.9)24.7 (17.8 to 31.5)24.5 (14.5 to 43.5)25.8 (9.3 to 42.3)
 Smoking habits82.7 (79.4 to 85.9)83.5 (73.7 to 93.4)66.5 (65.3 to 76.7)*55.3 (46.9 to 63.7)*46.4 (34.9 to 57.8)*42.5 (23.8 to 61.1)*
  1. a MENA: Middle Easterners/North Africans. Multilevel binary regression models with random effects at general practice level were used to compare the ethnic differences with Westerners as reference, adjusted for individual level characteristics (age, diabetes duration and education), general practitioner level characteristics (gender, specialist status and years working as general practitioner in Norway) and county of residence in Norway. * No overlap in 95% CIs, indicating significant difference between Westerners and the particular minority group