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Table 1 Characteristics of individuals with type 2 diabetes by ethnicity and gender

From: Ethnic and gender differences in the management of type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study from Norwegian general practice

ParameterEthnicity
WesternersEastern EuropeansEastern AsiansSouth AsiansMENA cEastern Africans
Men, n46981037643020080
Age (years)65.1 (64.7 to 65.4)59.6 (57.4 to 61.9)*57.8 (54.6 to 60.9)*56.2 (55.2 to 57.2)*54.6 (53.0 to 56.2)*51.7 (49.2 to 54.2)*
Diabetes duration (years)8.5 (8.3 to 8.7)8.0 (6.5 to 9.6)6.9 (5.4 to 8.3)*9.2 (8.5 to 10.0)6.6 (5.7 to 7.4)*6.0 (4.6 to 7.3)*
BMI (kg/m2) a30.1 (29.9 to 30.4)30.3 (28.9 to 31.8)26.9 (25.5 to 28.4)*28.3 (27.7 to 29.0)*31.2 (29.4 to 33.0)26.6 (25.0 to 28.1)*
Resident time in Norway (years) b34.6 (31.9 to 37.3)22.0 (19.0 to 24.9)*26.9 (24.7 to 29.2)*29.5 (28.5 to 30.5)*21.6 (19.9 to 23.2)*14.9 (12.8 to 16.9)*
Current smoking (%)21.9 (20.7 to 23.1)34.2 (25.0 to 43.4)*26.6 (16.7 to 36.5)27.7 (23.5 to 31.9)*34.8 (28.2 to 41.4)*21.7 (12.7 to 30.7)
Education (%)
 Pre/primary28.3 (27.1 to 29.6)26.0 (17.5 to 34.5)44.6 (33.4 to 55.8)*54.8 (50.1 to 59.5)*46.9 (40.0 to 53.8)*47.9 (37.0 to 58.8)*
 Secondary51.9 (50.5 to 53.3)41.7 (32.2 to 51.2)20.3 (11.3 to 29.3)*23.2 (19.2 to 27.2)*28.6 (22.3 to 34.9)*20.5 (11.7 to 29.3)*
 Tertiary19.8 (18.7 to 20.9)32.3 (23.3 to 41.3)*35.1 (24.4 to 45.8)*22.0 (18.1 to 25.9)24.5 (18.5 to 30.5)31.5 (21.3 to 41.7)*
Women, n37978114236814046
Age (years)68.3 (67.9 to 68.7)61.6 (58.8 to 64.4)*57.7 (55.6 to 59.9)*56.7 (55.6 to 57.8)*53.4 (51.6 to 55.2)*51.9 (49. 3 to 54.9)*
Diabetes duration (years)9.0 (8.7 to 9.2)7.3 (6.0 to 8.6)*7.7 (6.7 to 8.7)*9.8 (9.0 to 10.6)7.7 (6.4 to 8.9)5.5 (4.0 to 6.9)*
BMI (kg/m2) a30.5 (30.2 to 30.8)31.5 (29.8 to 33.2)26.3 (25.1 to 27.5)*31.0 (29.9 to 32.0)32.2 (30.7 to 33.6)*30.8 (28.6 to 33.1)
Resident time in Norway (years) b43.1 (40.3 to 45.9)22.4 (19.6 to 25.2)*24.3 (22.7 to 25.9)*26.5 (25.6 to 27.5)*21.5 (19.7 to 23.3)*14.1 (10.9 to 17.3)*
Current smoking (%)23.9 (22.5 to 25.3)27.0 (17.3 to 36.7)12.1 (6.7 to 17.5)*1.8 (0.4 to 3.2)*20.2 (13.5 to 26.9)4.8 (−1.4 to 11.0)*
Education (%)
 Pre/primary40.2 (38.6 to 41.8)35.7 (25.3 to 46.1)49.6 (41.4 to 57.8)63.4 (58.5 to 68.3)*73.8 (66.5 to 81.1)*62.2 (48.2 to 76.2)*
 Secondary45.0 (43.4 to 46.6)37.1 (26.6 to 47.6)19.7 (13.2 to 26.2)*22.5 (18.2 to 26.8)*14.8 (8.9 to 20.7)*18.9 (7.6 to 30.2)*
 Tertiary14.8 (13.7 to 15.9)27.1 (17.4 to 36.8)*30.7 (23.1 to 38.3)*14.2 (10.6 to 17.8)11.5 (6.2 to 16.8)18.9 (7.6 to 30.2)
  1. Data are mean (95% CI), unless otherwise stated.
  2. a BMI Body mass index, b Resident time for those born outside Norway. c MENA Middle Easterners/North Africans
  3. The chi-square tests and the One-Way ANOVA tests with post hoc tests were applied to compare ethnic differences with Westerners as reference. * No overlap in 95% CIs, indicating significant difference between Westerners and the particular minority group