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Table 4 Bivariate regressions of antenatal care quality measures on various predictors, PQCC 2016/2017

From: Quality of antenatal care and associated factors in a rural county in Kenya: an assessment of service provision and experience dimensions

  Linear regression: Coefficient [95%CI] Logistic regression: OR [95%CI]
Experience score Service provision score Received an ultrasound
Age
15 to 19 years 0 [0 0] 0 [0 0] 1 [1 1]
20 to 29 years 1.98** [0.55 3.41] 0.18 [-0.25 0.61] 2.40** [1.34 4.32]
30 to 48 years 1.80* [0.17 3.43] -0.11 [-0.60 0.38] 2.84** [1.51 5.31]
Marital status
Single 0 [0 0] 0 [0 0] 1 [1 1]
Partnered/Cohabiting -2.88 [-11.0 5.27] -1.59 [-3.98 0.80] 1.38 [0.14 13.7]
Married 2.70*** [1.21 4.19] -0.17 [-0.61 0.27] 0.77 [0.49 1.20]
Widowed 1.01 [-1.82 3.84] -0.33 [-1.15 0.50] 0.59 [0.23 1.52]
Divorced/Separated 2.7 [-2.13 7.54] 0.18 [-1.30 1.66] 0.75 [0.16 3.57]
Number of births
1 0 [0 0] 0 [0 0] 1 [1 1]
2 0.05 [-1.46 1.56] -0.085 [-0.52 0.35] 1.4 [0.91 2.14]
3 0.16 [-1.38 1.69] -0.52* [-0.97 -0.069] 0.53* [0.31 0.91]
4 or more -0.65 [-2.01 0.70] -1.08*** [-1.47 -0.68] 0.67 [0.43 1.04]
Tribe
Luo 0 [0 0] 0 [0 0] 1 [1 1]
Kuria 3.96*** [2.71 5.20] 0.59** [0.22 0.96] 0.28*** [0.16 0.49]
Other 1.2 [-0.61 3.01] -0.2 [-0.75 0.35] 1.05 [0.62 1.80]
Religious affiliation
Catholic 0 [0 0] 0 [0 0] 1 [1 1]
Protestant/Pentecostal 0.77 [-0.75 2.28] -0.16 [-0.60 0.28] 0.58* [0.36 0.93]
Seventh Day Adventist 0.55 [-0.87 1.98] -0.11 [-0.52 0.30] 0.99 [0.66 1.48]
Other Christian -0.46 [-1.99 1.06] -0.58* [-1.04 -0.13] 0.31*** [0.17 0.57]
Muslim/other religion -2.48 [-6.42 1.45] -1.21 [-2.42 0.0026] 0.2 [0.026 1.51]
Education
No school/Primary 0 [0 0] 0 [0 0] 1 [1 1]
Post-primary/vocational/Secondary 2.15*** [0.96 3.34] 0.66*** [0.32 1.01] 2.03*** [1.35 3.04]
College or above 1.79* [0.11 3.47] 1.17*** [0.69 1.66] 9.22*** [5.87 14.5]
Literate 2.28*** [1.05 3.51] 0.72*** [0.35 1.08] 2.57*** [1.57 4.19]
Employed 3.66*** [2.44 4.88] 0.86*** [0.50 1.22] 2.14*** [1.50 3.06]
Household wealth quintile
Poorest/Poorer 0 [0 0] 0 [0 0] 1 [1 1]
Middle 0.73 [-0.80 2.26] 0.45 [-0.000034 0.90] 1.67 [0.93 3.01]
Richer/Richest 1.56** [0.40 2.72] 0.78*** [0.44 1.12] 5.03*** [3.35 7.53]
Current occupation
Agricultural labor 0 [0 0] 0 [0 0] 1 [1 1]
Casual labor -0.71 [-3.18 1.77] 0.45 [-0.29 1.19] 1.86 [0.76 4.53]
Salaried worker 3.16** [1.02 5.30] 0.79* [0.17 1.42] 8.51*** [4.32 16.8]
Self-employed in petty trade 3.07*** [1.28 4.85] 0.53 [-0.00080 1.05] 2.10* [1.07 4.12]
Self-employed small-scale industry 1.18 [-2.17 4.53] 0.28 [-0.72 1.28] 3.55* [1.29 9.75]
Unemployed/homemaker 0.58 [-0.94 2.10] 0.19 [-0.26 0.64] 1.7 [0.93 3.13]
Other 1.31 [-3.92 6.54] -0.017 [-1.72 1.69] 3.34 [0.82 13.6]
Partner’s education
No school/Primary 0 [0 0] 0 [0 0] 1 [1 1]
Post-primary/vocational/Secondary 1.1 [-0.26 2.46] 0.3 [-0.093 0.70] 1.74* [1.05 2.89]
College or above 2.22** [0.64 3.81] 1.25*** [0.79 1.72] 7.59*** [4.67 12.3]
No Partner -1.54* [-2.96 -0.12] 0.44* [0.025 0.85] 2.36*** [1.43 3.89]
Partner’s occupation
Agricultural labor 0 [0 0] 0 [0 0] 1 [1 1]
Casual labor -1.68 [-3.36 0.0057] 0.15 [-0.36 0.65] 1.32 [0.68 2.53]
Salaried worker 1.29 [-0.45 3.03] 0.91*** [0.38 1.43] 4.77*** [2.68 8.51]
Self-employed in petty trade 1.69 [-0.11 3.49] 0.51 [-0.029 1.04] 1.01 [0.48 2.12]
Self-employed small-scale industry -0.74 [-2.90 1.41] 0.6 [-0.041 1.24] 2.19* [1.05 4.54]
Unemployed/homemaker -0.62 [-4.21 2.98] 0.17 [-0.91 1.25] 7.29*** [2.85 18.6]
Other -4.75 [-12.8 3.31] 0.45 [-1.92 2.83] 1 [1 1]
No Partner -2.23** [-3.86 -0.60] 0.48* [0.0028 0.97] 2.19** [1.22 3.94]
Self or family work in health facility 2.95** [0.74 5.17] 0.72* [0.073 1.36] 1.97* [1.10 3.51]
Has health insurance 3.08*** [1.66 4.50] 0.86*** [0.44 1.29] 3.45*** [2.36 5.05]
High participation in household decisions 1.30* [0.25 2.35] -0.011 [-0.32 0.30] 2.68*** [1.88 3.81]
Intolerant towards domestic violence 1.59** [0.54 2.64] 0.86*** [0.55 1.17] 2.89*** [2.00 4.18]
Experienced domestic violence -2.48*** [-3.53 -1.44] -1.12*** [-1.42 -0.82] 0.55*** [0.39 0.77]
Had any pregnancy complications 0.84 [-0.22 1.90] -0.40* [-0.71 -0.092] 0.65* [0.46 0.92]
Had severe pregnancy complications 1.45* [0.31 2.59] -0.27 [-0.61 0.061] 0.73 [0.50 1.06]
Had complications in prior pregnancy -0.53 [-2.08 1.03] -0.51* [-0.98 -0.047] 0.93 [0.56 1.52]
Received ANC in prior pregnancy -0.011 [-1.13 1.11] -0.51** [-0.84 -0.19] 0.9 [0.64 1.28]
Prior facility delivery 0.63 [-0.45 1.71] -0.25 [-0.57 0.073] 1.04 [0.74 1.47]
Reason for first ANC
Because of a problem 0 [0 0] 0 [0 0] 1 [1 1]
Just for a checkup 1.69* [0.033 3.34] 0.077 [-0.43 0.59] 0.77 [0.47 1.27]
Can’t Remember -4.45 [-10.0 1.13] 0.25 [-1.48 1.99] 0.51 [0.061 4.31]
Timing of first antenatal visit
First trimester 0 [0 0] 0 [0 0] 1 [1 1]
Second trimester -0.48 [-1.66 0.70] -0.032 [-0.38 0.31] 0.87 [0.60 1.25]
Third Trimester -3.31** [-5.31 -1.31] -1.36*** [-1.94 -0.78] 0.64 [0.33 1.26]
Number of antenatal visits
Less than 4 0 [0 0] 0 [0 0] 1 [1 1]
4 or 5 1.50** [0.37 2.64] 0.70*** [0.36 1.03] 1.57* [1.07 2.29]
6 plus 2.34* [0.53 4.15] 1.24*** [0.72 1.77] 1.75 [1.00 3.06]
Highest ANC facility
Gov’t Hospital 0 [0 0] 0 [0 0] 1 [1 1]
Gov’t HC/Dispensary 0.68 [-0.46 1.81] -0.52** [-0.86 -0.19] 0.28*** [0.19 0.41]
Mission/Private facility 3.48*** [1.60 5.36] 0.5 [-0.045 1.05] 1.62* [1.01 2.59]
Highest ANC Provider type
Nurse/Midwife 0 [0 0] 0 [0 0] 1 [1 1]
Doctor/Clinical officer 1.37 [-0.27 3.02] -0.16 [-0.66 0.34] 0.69 [0.38 1.24]
Non-skilled attendant 2.75 [-2.66 8.15] -0.051 [-1.48 1.38] 1.11 [0.24 5.17]
In the community/a home -2.19*** [-3.25 -1.13] -0.58*** [-0.90 -0.26] 0.92 [0.65 1.28]
Postpartum length > =1 week -2.97** [-4.92 -1.03] -0.88** [-1.45 -0.31] 1.12 [0.59 2.12]
  1. Notes: 95% confidence intervals in brackets * p<0.05 ** p<0.01 *** p<0.001