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Table 1 General features of the interventions

From: Systematic review of the costs and effectiveness of interventions to increase infant vaccination coverage in low- and middle-income countries

Publication Year First author Location Study type Intervention description Intervention type Urban / rural Campaign vs. routine Delivery platforma
2009 Andersson Pakistan (Balochistan province) Cluster randomized controlled trial Community discussion groups on vaccine benefits, costs, and coverage Demand generation Not stated Routine Mobile
2010 Banerjee India (Rajasthan state) Cluster randomized controlled trial Monthly immunization camps conducted by mobile team in villages Delivery approach Rural Routine Mobile
2007 Barham Mexico (7 states) Cluster randomized controlled trial Cash transfers conditional on children attending preventative health visits and mothers attending health education talks Demand generation / Cash transfers Both Routine Both
Nicaragua   Cash transfers conditional on children attending preventative health visits and mothers attending health education talks Demand generation / Cash transfers Not stated Routine Both
2017 Byberg Guinea-Bissau (9 regions) Cluster randomized controlled trial Giving measles vaccination to all unvaccinated children 9–36 months regardless of number of children present Delivery approach Rural Campaign Mobile
2014 Carnell Ethiopia (Amhara, Oromia and SNNP regions) Pre-post design I: Strengthen health systems (planning, HMIS, logistics, health care financing) II: Improve health workers’ skills (through training and supervision in immunization, ENA and IMCI) III: Introduce community health promoters Health systems strengthening Rural Routine Fixed
2003 Drain Madagascar (Antananarivo and Fianarantsoa provinces) Randomized controlled trial Clinic staff used auto-disable syringes on all days or on non-routine immunization days Novel technology Both Both Fixed
2014 Hayford Bangladesh (Dhaka) Pre-post design I: Extended hours at satellite clinics; II: training for vaccinators; III: clinic screening tool to identify children with missed doses; IIII: volunteer community group to assist at satellite clinics Delivery approach Urban Campaign Mobile
2013 Khan Bangladesh (Mirpur area of Dhaka) Cluster randomized controlled trial Oral cholera vaccination for high-risk, urban population aged one and older Delivery approach Urban Campaign Both
2005 Levin Indonesia (West Nusa Tenggara province) Pre-post design Delivering birth dose of Hepatitis B vaccine using prefilled injection device Novel technology Not stated Routine Mobile
2011 Owais Pakistan (Karachi) Randomized controlled trial Home-based vaccine promotion education by community health workers using pictoral cards Demand generation Urban Routine Mobile
2007 Pandey India (Uttar Pradesh state) Cluster randomized controlled trial 4–6 meetings in each village to disseminate information on entitled health and education services Demand generation Rural Routine Mobile
2018 Powell-Jackson India (Uttar Pradesh state) Randomized controlled trial Health information messaging targeting mothers of unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated children through home visits Demand generation Rural Routine Fixed
2009 Rainey India (Uttar Pradesh state) Pre-post design Identifying and vaccinating newborns with OPV within 72 h of birth Delivery approach Both Campaign Both
2006 Soeung Cambodia Cross-sectional design Developing and implementing immunization microplans that are supported by performance based agreements and a secure system of financing Health systems strengthening Rural Routine Fixed
  1. a‘Fixed’ refers to vaccinations delivered in a health facility; ‘mobile’ refers to vaccinations delivered through mobile outreach services
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