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Table 3 Probit regression and contributions to inequality in outpatient visit in 2005 and 2009, women

From: Inequality in outpatient resource utilization among older adults during the 2007–2008 financial crisis: findings from Taiwan

variable 2005 2009
coefficient elasticity Corrected CI contribution coefficient elasticity Corrected CI contribution
Lpinco 0.1029 0.3402 0.0353 0.0480 0.7628** 2.5991 0.0322 0.3249
Age group (ref: 75+)
 65–74 0.0036 0.0009 0.0385 0.0001 - 0.0224 - 0.0054 0.1017 - 0.0022
Marital status (ref = unmarried)
 Married 0.0566 0.0115 0.0469 0.0022 - 0.0911 - 0.0181 0.0413 - 0.0030
Education Level (Ref = informal education or illiterate)
 Elementary education 0.1389 0.0175 0.3431 0.0240 - 0.5489* - 0.0849 0.2286 - 0.0777
 Junior high school or above 0.2830 0.0128 0.8360 0.0427 - 0.9739* - 0.0650 0.8213 - 0.2137
Self-reposted health (Ref = fair)
 Good - 0.0289 - 0.0013 0.1397 - 0.0007 0.0204 0.0010 0.2550 0.0010
 Bad 0.1137 0.0291 - 0.0523 - 0.0061 0.3136** 0.0772 - 0.0597 - 0.0184
Chronic disease (Ref = without)
 With chronic disease 0.3101*** 0.0604 0.0206 0.0050 0.3242*** 0.0730 - 0.0264 - 0.0077
Mobility (Ref = without mobile difficulty)
 With any mobile difficulty 0.3011** 0.0734 - 0.0741 - 0.0217 0.1119 0.0237 - 0.0767 - 0.0073
Depress (Ref = without, CES-D scoring under 10)
 With 0.2190* 0.0189 - 0.1697 - 0.0128 0.1929 0.0122 - 0.1384 - 0.0067
Whether or not dosing exercise in past two weeks (Ref = not doing)
 Doing any exercise 0.1374 0.0295 0.0696 0.0082 0.0985 0.0193 0.0760 0.0059
Location in Taiwan (Ref = Central region)
 Eastern and offshore Islands - 0.1872 - 0.0021 - 0.4137 0.0035 0.2135 0.0024 - 0.1348 - 0.0013
 Northern - 0.2156 - 0.0304 0.3498 - 0.0426 - 0.02547 - 0.0039 0.2133 - 0.0033
 Southern - 0.0564 - 0.0067 - 0.1367 0.0036 0.0505 0.0058 - 0.1270 - 0.0029
Physician numbers per 10,000 populations in areaa (Ref = 2)
 1 0.1047 0.0142 −0.1461 −0.0083 0.0549 0.0036 0.1100 0.0016
 3 −0.1118 −0.0126 0.3999 −0.0202 −0.0610 −0.0104 0.1438 −0.0060
  1. Outpatient visit: whether the participant had an outpatient visit in the past 1 month
  2. Ref: reference group
  3. Lpinco: log of equivalent income (TW$, 2009)
  4. aRatio: 1 for fewer than 70 physicians, 2 for 71–90 physicians, and 3 for 91 or more physicians
  5. *Statistically significant at the 95% level (p < 0.05);
  6. **Statistically significant at the 99% level (p < 0.01)
  7. *** Statistically significant at the 99.9% level (p < 0.001)