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Table 1 Descriptive characteristics of the study sample, by outpatient visit and year, n (%)

From: Inequality in outpatient resource utilization among older adults during the 2007–2008 financial crisis: findings from Taiwan

Variables 2005
Outpatient using
2009
Outpatient using
Dependent variable yes no yes no
 Outpatient visita 1300 (53.8) 1115 (46.2) 1187 (46.5) 1367 (53.5)
Independent variable
 Gender X2 = 0.4222 p = 0.516 X2 = 1.8042 p = 0.179
  Female 648 (54.5) 541 (45.5) 652 (45.3) 787 (54.7)
  Male 652 (53.2) 574 (46.8) 535 (48.0) 580 (52.0)
 Marital status X2 = 3.0119 p = 0.083 X2 = 0.0402 p = 0.841
  Married 875 (55.1) 713 (44.9) 764 (46.6) 874 (53.4)
  Unmarried 425 (51.4) 402 (48.6) 423 (46.2) 492 (53.8)
  Missing number     1
 Age group X2 = 4.6048 p = 0.032 X2 = 5.2597 p = 0.022
  65–74 795 (52.2) 729 (47.8) 679 (44.6) 843 (55.4)
  75+ 505 (56.7) 386 (43.3) 508 (49.2) 524 (50.8)
 Education Level X2 = 3.5482 p = 0.170 X2 = 1.7067 p = 0.426
  Informal education or illiterate 477 (48.5) 449 (48.5) 362 (47.9) 394 (52.1)
  Elementary education 535 (54.8) 442 (45.2) 536 (45.2) 650 (54.8)
  Junior high school or above 288 (56.2) 224 (43.8) 284 (47.6) 312 (52.4)
  Missing number    5 11
 Self-reposted health X2 = 60.2724 p = 0.000 X2 = 60.1552 p = 0.000
  Poor 918 (59.4) 628 (40.6) 853 (52.0) 788 (48.0)
  Fair 249 (47.6) 274 (52.4) 238 (39.9) 358 (60.1)
  Good 133 (38.4) 213 (61.6) 96 (30.6) 218 (69.4)
 Chronic disease X2 = 82.5895 p = 0.000 X2 = 70.7057 p = 0.000
  With chronic disease 740 (63.4) 428 (36.6) 773 (53.8) 664 (46.2)
  Without chronic disease 560 (44.9) 687 (55.1) 414 (37.1) 703 (62.9)
 Mobility X2 = 50.1088 p = 0.000 X2 = 44.0703 p = 0.000
  Without mobile difficulty 541 (46.4) 625 (53.6) 528 (40.1) 788 (59.9)
  With any mobile difficulty 759 (60.8) 490 (39.2) 659 (53.2) 579 (46.8)
 Depress X2 = 15.4001 p = 0.000 X2 = 16.4124 p = 0.000
  CES-D scoring under 10 (without) 997 (51.8) 927 (48.2) 967 (44.8) 1193 (55.2)
  CES-D scoring 10 and more (with) 303 (61.7) 188 (38.3) 220 (55.8) 174 (44.2)
 Whether or not do exercise in past two weeks X2 = 3.1783 p = 0.075 X2 = 1.1819 p = 0.277
  Not doing any exercise in past two weeks 520 (51.7) 486 (48.3) 551 (45.4) 664 (54.6)
  Doing any exercise in past two weeks 780 (55.4) 629 (44.6) 636 (47.5) 703 (52.5)
 Location in Taiwan X2 = 3.2859 p = 0.350 X2 = 3.3526 p = 0.340
 Eastern and offshore Islands area 85 (49.1) 88 (50.9) 117 (52.0) 108 (48.0)
  Central region 348 (56.2) 271 (43.8) 338 (46.6) 387 (53.4)
  Northern 420 (52.8) 375 (47.2) 299 (45.1) 364 (54.9)
  Southern 447 (54.0) 381 (46.0) 433 (46.0) 508 (54.0)
 Physician no. per 10,000 populations in areab X2 = 1.8863 p = 0.389 X2 = 2.1937 p = 0.334
  1 517 (54.4) 434 (45.6) 119 (42.4) 162 (57.6)
  2 452 (55.0) 370 (45.0) 581 (46.8) 660 (53.2)
  3 331 (51.6) 311 (46.2) 487 (47.2) 545 (52.8)
Lpincoc Mean (s.e) Mean (s.e)
  8.94 (0.96) 8.91 (0.99) 9.01 (1.35) 8.99 (1.39)
  1. Note: Outpatient visit: whether the participant had an outpatient visit in the past 1 month
  2. SE Standard error
  3. aThe p value of goodness-of-fit test between 2005 and 2009 is less than 0.0001, which is a statistical significant
  4. bRatio: 1 for fewer than 70 physicians, 2 for 71–90 physicians, and 3 for 91 or more physicians
  5. clog of equivalent income (TW$, 2009)