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Table 4 Mean Cardiac Rehabilitation Barrier Scale scores by funding source and CR participation status

From: Barriers to cardiac rehabilitation delivery in a low-resource setting from the perspective of healthcare administrators, rehabilitation providers, and cardiac patients

  Total Institution
Funding source
CR participation
status
N = 805 Public
n = 495
(61.5%)
Private
n = 310
(38.5%)
Enrolled
n = 305
(37.9%)
Not
n = 500
(62.1%)
Sex
 Male (%)   297 (60%) 139 (45%) 191 (63%) 245 (50%)
Age (mean ± SD)   60.8 ± 11.1 65.1 ± 13.7** 65.4 ± 11.4** 61.2 ± 12.7
CRBS item (number) / subscale a
mean ± SD
 I didn’t know about CR [5] 3.17 ± 1.54 3.14 ± 1.56 3.22 ± 1.52 1.97 ± 1.03 3.90 ± 1.34***
 My doctor did not feel it was necessary [16] 2.63 ± 1.43 2.63 ± 1.42 2.63 ± 1.46 1.65 ± 0.68 3.23 ± 1.45***
 Distance [1] 2.43 ± 1.41 2.60 ± 1.45*** 2.16 ± 1.31 2.05 ± 1.09 2.66 ± 1.54***
 Cost [2] 2.42 ± 1.39 2.62 ± 1.45*** 2.08 ± 1.21 2.09 ± 1.09 2.60 ± 1.50**
 Transportation problems [3] 2.26 ± 1.31 2.45 ± 1.38*** 1.93 ± 1.12 2.02 ± 1.00 2.40 ± 1.45
 I don’t need CR [6] 2.25 ± 1.29 2.08 ± 1.14 2.54 ± 1.45*** 1.63 ± 0.66 2.64 ± 1.43***
 Travel [10] 2.13 ± 1.48 1.97 ± 1.10 2.40 ± 1.92** 2.64 ± 1.80*** 1.83 ± 1.15
 Other health problems [14] 2.13 ± 1.25 2.11 ± 1.24 2.13 ± 1.24 2.31 ± 1.31** 2.00 ± 1.19
 I find exercise tiring or painful [9] 2.07 ± 1.14 2.09 ± 1.13 2.03 ± 1.14 1.78 ± 0.81 2.24 ± 1.26***
 I can manage my heart problem on my own [18] 2.04 ± 1.13 2.03 ± 1.09 2.06 ± 1.19 1.82 ± 0.87 2.18 ± 1.24**
 I already exercise at home, or in my community [7] 2.01 ± 1.13 1.97 ± 1.05 2.09 ± 1.24 1.71 ± 0.69 2.21 ± 1.29***
 Many people with heart problems don’t go, and they are fine [17] 2.01 ± 1.07 1.99 ± 1.05 2.04 ± 1.11 1.88 ± 0.88 2.09 ± 1.17
 Family responsibilities [4] 2.00 ± 1.36 2.04 ± 1.52 1.95 ± 1.08 2.03 ± 1.04 1.99 ± 1.53
 I don’t have the energy [13] 1.99 ± 1.14 1.95 ± 1.11 2.05 ± 1.17 1.73 ± 0.82 2.14 ± 1.27**
 Time constraints [11] 1.98 ± 1.11 1.96 ± 1.07 2.02 ± 1.16 1.68 ± 0.64 2.16 ± 1.28**
 Work responsibilities [12] 1.94 ± 1.13 1.92 ± 1.11 2.00 ± 1.16 1.88 ± 0.94 2.00 ± 1.23
 Severe weather [8] 1.90 ± 1.03 1.96 ± 1.07 1.82 ± 0.95 1.90 ± 0.95 1.91 ± 1.08
 I prefer to take care of my health alone, not in a group [21] 1.86 ± 1.05 1.76 ± 0.96 2.01 ± 1.15** 1.68 ± 0.71 1.96 ± 1.19
 It took too long to get referred into the program [20] 1.69 ± 0.82 1.76 ± 0.89 1.59 ± 0.68 1.87 ± 0.89*** 1.58 ± 0.75
 I am too old [15] 1.65 ± 0.86 1.65 ± 0.88 1.67 ± 0.82 1.59 ± 0.71 1.70 ± 0.94
 I think I was referred, but the rehab prog didn’t contact me [19] 1.62 ± 0.73 1.67 ± 0.79 1.53 ± 059 1.71 ± 0.70*** 1.56 ± 0.73
SUBSCALES
 Subscale 1
Comorbidities / functional status
1.98 ± 0.74 1.97 ± 0.72 1.99 ± 0.77 1.84 ± 0.58 2.07 ± 0.81***
 Subscale 2
Lack of perceived need
2.44 ± 0.84 2.43 ± 0.88 2.45 ± 0.77 1.80 ± 0.54 2.83 ± 0.75***
 Subscale 3
Personal / family issues
2.04 ± 0.80 2.04 ± 0.83 2.06 ± 0.77 1.85 ± 0.61 2.17 ± 0.88***
 Subscale 4
Travel / work conflicts
2.06 ± 1.03 1.96 ± 0.89 2.23 ± 1.20*** 2.25 ± 1.10*** 1.95 ± 0.96
 Subscale 5
Access
2.03 ± 0.79 2.16 ± 0.81*** 1.84 ± 0.70 1.93 ± 0.67 2.10 ± 0.84**
Total Score 2.12 ± 0.57 2.12 ± 0.58 2.11 ± 0.54 1.89 ± 0.51 2.26 ± 0.55***
  1. CR cardiac rehabilitation, CRBS cardiac rehabilitation barriers scale, SD standard deviation
  2. Differences by funding source and CR participation status: Mann-Whitney test; **p < .01; ***p < .001
  3. aItems were scored on a scale from 1 (“strongly disagree”) to 5 (“strongly agree”). Higher scores indicate greater barriers to participation or adherence to CR programs