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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of variables

From: What has driven the spatial spillover of China’s out-of-pocket payments?

Variable Mean Standard deviation Min Max
Logged per capita OPP (RMB) 6.451 0.615 4.496 7.902
Logged per capita income (RMB) 2.970 0.668 1.287 4.731
Aging level (%) 9.100 1.800 4.800 14.400
Mortality rate (%) 1.776 0.124 1.437 1.985
Ratio of visits in hospitals and those in primary institutions 1.368 1.032 0.323 7.656
Share of primary health care beds (%) 20.10 11.00 3.700 76.30
Ratio of health technicians in hospitals and those in primary institutions 5.896 22.164 0.852 362.333
Maternal mortality rate (%) 2.963 0.840 0.182 5.671
Logged gross Domestic Product (RMB) 1.765 0.415 0.694 2.581
Logged education level (Year) 2.100 0.175 1.319 2.487
Logged government health expenditure (RMB) 5.840 0.866 3.654 7.570
Urbanization level (%) 50.90 14.80 20.70 89.60
Observations 372
  1. Notes: 1 Per capita OPP, Per capita income, GDP, Education level and Government health expenditure take natural logarithm forms
  2. 2 Aging level = population older than age 65/total population;
  3. 3 Ratio of visits in hospitals and those in primary institutions = the number of visits in hospitals/those in primary health institutions;
  4. 4 Share of primary health care beds = the number of health beds in primary health institutions/all of health beds;
  5. 5 Ratio of health technicians in hospitals and those in primary institutions = the number of health technicians in hospitals/those in primary health institutions;
  6. 6 Urbanization level = urban population/total population
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