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Table 4 Characteristics of area-level factors in health centre areas by clusters in 1996–2013 (mean ± SE)

From: Trajectory modelling of ambulatory care sensitive conditions in Finland in 1996–2013: assessing the development of equity in primary health care through clustering of geographic areas – an observational retrospective study

  Men Women
Clusters SW C N SW C N
Health centre areas (n) 59 55 17 65 45 21
Healthcare-dependant factors
 Inpatient primary health care periods per 1000 inhabitants 30
± 0.5
70
± 1.1
98
± 2.4
43
± 0.7
92
± 1.4
114
± 2.5
 Reimbursed private dental care visits per 1000 inhabitants 460
± 6
290
± 5
210
± 6
450
± 6
270
± 6
210
± 6
 Proportion of people reimbursed for private health care use (%) 23
± 0.1
17
± 0.1
13
± 0.2
37
± 0.2
31
± 0.2
23
± 0.2
Populations sociodemographic characteristics
 Proportion of population aged ≥65 (%) 21
± 0.1
24
± 0.1
21
± 0.3
21
± 0.1
24
± 0.2
22
± 0.2
 Proportion of population with tertiary education (%) 24
± 0.2
18
± 0.2
17
± 0.3
23
± 0.2
18
± 0.2
17
± 0.3
Municipal characteristics
 Degree of urbanization (%) 80
± 0.4
70
± 0.4
57
± 0.7
80
± 0.5
70
± 0.4
65
± 0.8
Other health-related factors
 Morbidity index 94
± 0.4
112
± 0.6
120
± 0.9
95
± 0.4
112
± 0.7
120
± 0.9
 Pensioner’s care allowance of recipients aged ≥65 per 1000 inhabitants of the same age 108
± 1
144
± 1
169
± 2
171
± 2
221
± 2
248
± 2
  1. All the differences between group averages (tested with ANOVA) were statistically significant (p < 0.0001) for every area-level factor
  2. SW = southwestern cluster
  3. C = central cluster
  4. N = northern cluster