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Table 1 Area-level descriptive factors by their level of analysis

From: Trajectory modelling of ambulatory care sensitive conditions in Finland in 1996–2013: assessing the development of equity in primary health care through clustering of geographic areas – an observational retrospective study

List of variables Comments
Health care -dependant factors
 GP consultations per 1000 inhabitants  
 Primary and secondary care expenditures  
 Inpatient PHC periods per 1000 inhabitants  
 Specialised somatic inpatient care periods per 1000 inhabitants  
 Dentist visits in health centres per 1000 inhabitants  
 Reimbursed private dental care visits per 1000 inhabitants  
 Proportion of inhabitants reimbursed for private health care use  
Sociodemographic characteristics of the populations
 Proportions of inhabitants aged ≥65  
 Ratio of people aged < 15 and > 64 to every hundred people aged 15–64  
 Proportion of inhabitants with a tertiary education  
 Average years of education after primary education  
 Proportion of low-income households  
 Proportion of inhabitants receiving basic social assistance  
 Ratio of unemployed to total workforce  
Municipal characteristics
 Type of municipality Either an individual municipality or a consolidation of municipalities
 Proportion of inhabitants in the largest municipality  
 Degree of urbanisation  
Other health-related factors
 Potential years of life lost  
 Pensioner’s care allowance of recipients aged ≥65 per 1000 inhabitants of the same age Used as a proxy for both morbidity and limitations in ADL, as these are the main requirements for the allowance.
 THL’s morbidity index Comprises cancer, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases, musculoskeletal diseases, mental health problems, accidents and dementia [14].