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Table 1 Types of incidents occurring among oncology patients

From: A cross-sectional study: medication safety among cancer in-patients in tertiary care hospitals in KPK, Pakistan

Type of incidents Site 1 (CPOE) Site 2 (HWP) Total
No. % Mean 95% CI Sig. (2-tailed) No. % Mean 95% CI Sig. (2-tailed)
Lower Upper Lower Upper
Dose Omission 5 0.8 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.025 24 4 0.04 0.02 0.05 0.000 29
Wrong Strength or concentration 17 2.9 0.03 0.02 0.04 0.000 18 3 0.03 0.02 0.05 0.000 35
Wrong Dosage form 42 7.1 0.07 0.05 0.09 0.000 25 4.1 0.04 0.03 0.06 0.000 67
Wrong route of administration 36 6.1 0.06 0.04 0.08 0.000 4 0.7 0.01 0 0.01 0.000 40
Wrong time or schedule 69 11.7 0.12 0.09 0.14 0.000 52 8.6 0.09 0.07 0.11 0.000 121
Wrong Rate (IV bolus/injection/infusion) 14 2.4 0.02 0.01 0.04 0.000 28 4.6 0.05 0.03 0.07 0.000 42
Wrong Drug 116 19.7 0.20 0.16 0.23 0.000 37 6.1 0.06 0.04 0.08 0.000 153
Wrong Technique 19 3.2 0.03 0.02 0.05 0.000 48 7.9 0.08 0.06 0.1 0.000 67
Wrong Duration 1 0.2 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.318 17 2.8 0.03 0.02 0.04 0.000 18
Wrong Patient 1 0.2 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.318 1
Improper Dose 185 31.4 0.31 0.28 0.35 0.000 94 15.5 0.16 0.13 0.19 0.000 279
Inappropriate diluents 1 0.2 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.318 10 1.7 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.002 11
Inappropriate Labeling 12 2 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.001 51 8.4 0.09 0.07 0.11 0.000 63
Monitoring Error (Including CIs*a and DIs*b) 86 14.6 0.15 0.12 0.17 0.000 92 15.2 0.14 0.12 0.17 0.000 178
Deteriorated Drug Error 7 1.2 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.008 1 0.2 0 0 0.01 0.318 8
Potential problem with the lack of treatment effectiveness 133 22.6 0.23 0.19 0.26 0.000 53 8.7 0.08 0.06 0.1 0.000 186
Patient suffers or will possibly suffer from ADEs 69 11.7 0.12 0.09 0.14 0.000 87 14.4 0.15 0.12 0.18 0.000 156
Drug treatment more costly than necessary 52 8.8 0.09 0.07 0.11 0.000 109 18 0.18 0.14 0.21 0.000 161
Other type of incidents 229 38.9 0.39 0.35 0.43 0.000 345 56.9 0.69 0.6 0.78 0.000 574
Other types (breakup)
 Unauthorized  medication 12 2 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.001 13 2.1 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.000 25
 Replacing medication without approval 6 1 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.014 1 0.2 0 0 0.01 0.318 7
 Requesting more than required according to order 15 2.5 0.03 0.01 0.04 0.000 12 2 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.001 27
 No entry of drug administration record 14 2.3 0.02 0.01 0.04 0.000 14
 Forgetting to prepare medication 1 0.2 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.318 20 3.3 0.03 0.02 0.05 0.000 21
 Inappropriate storage        6 1 0.01 0 0.02 0.014 6
 Not highlighting administration considerations 33 5.6 0.00 0.04 0.07 0.000 16 2.6 0.02 0.01 0.04 0.000 49
 No entry of patient indication 7 1.2 0.01 0 0.02 0.008 7
 Missing necessary information 18 3.1 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.000 107 17.7 0.17 0.14 0.2 0.000 125
 Unnecessary or medication without need 11 1.9 0.06 0.01 0.03 0.001 68 11.2 0.11 0.08 0.13 0.000 79
 Medication non-compliance 2 0.3 0 0 0.01 0.157 2
 Use of abbreviations 5 0.8 0.01 0 0.01 0.025 5
 Product not available 20 3.4 0.00 0.02 0.05 0.000 24 4 0.04 0.02 0.06 0.000 44
 No drug given for indication 51 8.7 0.03 0.06 0.11 0.000 33 5.4 0.06 0.04 0.08 0.000 84
 Therapeutic duplication 37 6.3 0.02 0.04 0.08 0.000 20 3.3 0.03 0.02 0.05 0.000 57
 Entry of not administered dose in MAR*c 1 0.2 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.318 3 0.5 0 0 0.01 0.083 4
 Incorrect entry in MAR*c 1 0.2 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.318 5 0.8 0.01 0 0.02 0.025 6
 Wrong Indication for drug 61 10.4 0.03 0.08 0.13 0.000 34 5 0.06 0.04 0.08 0.000 95
 Incorrect IV*d to PO*e conversion 1 0.2 0.09 0.00 0.01 0.318 9 1.5 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.003 10
Total 1362 1494 2856
  1. C.Is*a Contraindicated, DIs*b Drug interactions, MAR*c Medication Administration Record, IV*d intravenous and PO*e Per Oral
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