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Table 5 Prediction of key determinants of CHE in 2003, 2008, and 2015

From: Increase of catastrophic health expenditure while it does not have socio-economic anymore; finding from a district on Tehran after recent extensive health sector reform

VariablesAdjuster OR 200395% confidence intervalAdjuster OR 200895% confidence intervalAdjuster OR 201595% confidence interval
Economic status  *   
 Quintile 1 (poorest)3.10(1.26–7.79)5.03(1.82–13.87)1.47(0.77–2.80)
 Quintile 22.55(0.99–6.51)4.19(1.13–13.76)1.55(0.81–2.95)
 Quintile 32.19(0.85–5.62)2.78(1.06–7.25)1.31(0.73–2.33)
 Quintile 41.44(0.51–4.05)1.96(0.64–6.99)0.65(0.33–1.28)
Lack of Insurance1.93*(1.05–3.51)2.42*(1.26–4.65)0.62(0.33–1.18)
Female household head1.79(0.69–4.69)1.46(0.81–2.63)
Having member ≥65 in Household1.66(0.79–3.48)1.43(0.69–2.95)1.14(0.70–1.84)
Having member ≤5 in Household0.82(0.41–1.64)1.13(0.53–2.49)1.30(0.67–2.53)
Household size
 3–6 members0.62(0.31–1.22)0.62(0.15–2.53)0.60(0.36–1.01)
 ≥ 7 members0.93(0.32–2.62)1.13(0.24–5.38)0.34(0.10–1.16)
Having disabled member in household1.31(0.64–2.63)0.78(0.40–1.51)
Dentistry service usage4.09**(2.31–7.24)4.58**(2.36–8.91)1.39(0.92–2.10)
Inpatient service usage3.52**(1.61–7.69)11.39**(3.76–34.57)1.64*(1.02–2.62)
Outpatient service usage1.51**(1.29–1.77)1.003(0.998–1.007)
  1. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.001
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