Skip to main content

Table 4 Number and proportion of households exposed to CHE by study variables in the 2003, 2008, and 2015 surveys

From: Increase of catastrophic health expenditure while it does not have socio-economic anymore; finding from a district on Tehran after recent extensive health sector reform

Variables2003 survey N (%, CI)2008 survey N (%, CI)2015 survey N (%, CI)P-valuea
Total no. households with CHE73 (12.6%, 9.9–15.3)70 (11.8%, 9.2–14.4)179 (29.9%, 26.2–33.6)< 0.001
Economic status *  
 Quintile 1 (poorest)25 (17%, 10.9–23.1)23 (18%, 11.3–24.7)38 (35.3%, 26.2–44.4)< 0.001
 Quintile 216 (14%, 7.6–20.4)9 (14%, 5.5–22.5)32 (34.8%, 25.1–44.5)< 0.001
 Quintile 315 (14%, 7.4–20.6)21 (13%, 7.8–18.2)48 (32%, 24.5–39.5)< 0.001
 Quintile 49 (9%, 3.4–14.6)8 (9%, 3.1–14.9)22 (25.3%, 16.2–34.4)0.001
 Quintile 5 (richest)8 (7%, 2.3–11.7)9 (6%, 2.2–9.8)39 (32.5%, 24.1–40.9)< 0.001
Insurance status  * 
 Have52 (11%, 8.2–13.8)47 (11%, 8.0–14.0)160 (33.3%, 29.1–37.5)< 0.001
 Not have21 (17%, 10.4–23.6)23 (15%, 9.3–20.7)19 (22%, 13.2–30.8)0.382
Household head
 Father62 (11%, 8.4–13.6)150 (30.5%, 26.4–34.6)< 0.001
 Mother or other8 (18%, 6.6–29.3)29 (39%, 27.9–50.1)0.017
Member ≥65 years in Household *  
 Have14 (11%, 5.6–16.4)15 (14%, 7.4–20.6)56 (35.6%, 28.1–43.1)< 0.001
 Not have59 (12%, 9.1–14.9)55 (11%, 8.3–13.7)123 (30.1%, 26.6–34.5)< 0.001
Household size
 1–2 members18 (19%, 11.1–26.9)3 (12%, −0.7-24.7)54 (38.5%, 30.4–46.7)< 0.001
 3–6 members48 (11%, 8.1–13.9)48 (10.5%, 7.7–13.3)120 (29.6%, 25.1–34.1)< 0.001
 ≥ 7 members7 (12%, 3.6–20.4)19 (17%, 10.0–23.0)5 (23.8%, 5.6–42.0)0.434
Disabled member in the household *  
 Have21 (20%, 12.3–27.6)22 (35.9%, 23.9–47.9)0.023
 Not have49 (10%, 7.3–12.7)157 (31.1%, 27.1–35.1)< 0.001
Dentistry usage (during previous month)****  
 Have27 (27%, 18.3–35.7)29 (14%, 9.3–18.7)75 (35.1%, 28.7–41.5)< 0.001
 Not have46 (10%, 7.3–12.7)41 (8%, 5.6–10.3)104 (29.6%, 24.8–34.4)< 0.001
Inpatient service usage (during previous year)**** 
 Have12 (30%, 15.8–44.2)13 (56.5%, 36.2–76.8)51 (42.1%, 33.3–50.9)0.114
 Not have61 (12%, 9.2–14.8)57 (10%, 7.5–12.5)128 (28.8%, 24.6–33.0)< 0.001
Outpatient service usage (during previous month) *** 
 Have67 (14.5%, 11.3–17.7)170 (32.9%, 28.8–36.9)< 0.001
 Not have3 (2%, −0.2-4.2)9 (18.5%, 7.6–29.4)< 0.001
  1. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.001
  2. aChi-square test
\