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Table 8 Difference-in-differences estimates of effect of Enhanced Primary Care on the population (robustness checks)

From: Effects of non-medical health coaching on multimorbid patients in primary care: a difference-in-differences analysis

  Robustness Check 1 Robustness Check 2 Robustness Check 3
(Alternative Control Group) (Medium-Term Effects) (Simplified Analysis)
Outcomes N Adjusteda difference-in-differences (95% CI) N Adjusteda difference-in-differences (95% CI) N Adjusteda difference-in-differences (95% CI)
Health status
 EQ-5D-5L 294,272 0.0014 (−0.0125 to 0.0153) 3,147,503 −0.0019 (−0.0156 to 0.0118) 3,147,503 −0.0023 (−0.0104 to 0.0059)
 Physical functioning 301,710 0.0049 (−0.0126 to 0.0224) 3,242,123 0.0050 (−0.0129 to 0.0230) 3,242,123 −0.0003 (−0.0083 to 0.0076)
 Psychological wellbeing 303,519 −0.0020 (−0.0107 to 0.0066) 3,267,482 −0.0211 (−0.0351 to -0.0071)‡‡ 3,267,482 −0.0036 (−0.0110 to 0.0038)
 Resilience 301,024 0.0035 (−0.0151 to 0.0220) 3,238,682 0.0033 (−0.0096 to 0.0163) 3,238,682 0.0007 (−0.0040 to 0.0055)
Experience of care
 Person-centeredness 268,370 −0.0143 (−0.0515 to 0.0230) 2,919,957 −0.0169 (−0.0566 to 0.0228) 2,919,957 −0.0065 (−0.0192 to 0.0061)
 Continuity of care 178,630 −0.0774 (−0.2051 to 0.0503) 1,774,615 −0.0594 (−0.1141 to -0.0047) 1,774,615 −0.0128 (−0.0410 to 0.0154)
Health behaviour
 Smoking habit 311,270 0.0113 (−0.0017 to 0.0244) 3,368,788 0.0000 (−0.0410 to 0.0409) 3,368,788 −0.0011 (−0.0152 to 0.0131)
Health care utilisation
 Primary care utilisationb 312,654 −0.0372 (−0.0565 to -0.0178)‡‡ 3,384,804 −0.0196 (−0.0525 to 0.0132) 3,384,804 0.0013 (−0.0126 to 0.0153)
  1. aAdjusted for gender, age, ethnicity, employment status, number of chronic conditions, time since last GP appointment, and practice and time fixed effects
  2. bAdjusted for gender, age, ethnicity, employment status, number of chronic conditions, and practice and time fixed effects
  3. p < 0.05, ‡‡p < 0.01