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Table 7 Difference-in-differences estimates of effect of Enhanced Primary Care on the population (primary analysis)

From: Effects of non-medical health coaching on multimorbid patients in primary care: a difference-in-differences analysis

Primary Analysis
Outcomes Unadjusted means Unadjusted difference-in-differences N Adjusteda difference-in-differences (95% CI)
Treatment
Pre/Post
Control
Pre/Post
Simplified Wave 1 Wave 2
Health status
 EQ-5D-5L 0.8192 0.8139 0.8060 0.8036 −0.0030 −0.0054 0.0054‡‡ 3,147,503 0.0004 (−0.0103 to 0.0111)
 Physical functioning 0.8557 0.8571 0.8438 0.8455 −0.0004 −0.0029 0.0048‡‡ 3,242,123 0.0044 (−0.0116 to 0.0204)
 Psychological wellbeing 0.9013 0.8892 0.8888 0.8824 −0.0056 −0.0143 0.0073‡‡ 3,267,482 −0.0034 (−0.0078 to 0.0011)
 Resilience 0.8927 0.8929 0.8829 0.8817 0.0015 0.0022 0.0046‡‡ 3,238,682 0.0038 (−0.0139 to 0.0214)
Experience of care
 Person-centeredness 0.8759 0.8723 0.8503 0.8523 −0.0056 −0.0055‡‡ 0.0010‡‡ 2,919,957 −0.0155 (−0.0494 to 0.0184)
 Continuity of care 0.7465 0.7083 0.7037 0.6787 −0.0132 −0.0173‡‡ −0.0187‡‡ 1,774,615 −0.0794 (−0.2058 to 0.0470)
Health behaviour
 Smoking habit 0.2113 0.2034 0.2204 0.2128 −0.0002 0.0030 0.0046‡‡ 3,368,788 0.0088 (0.0009 to 0.0167)
Health care utilisation
 Primary care utilisationb 0.7347 0.7299 0.7366 0.7294 0.0023 −0.0165 0.0091 3,384,804 −0.0331 (−0.0448 to -0.0214)‡‡
  1. All unadjusted and adjusted values are weighted. Simplified unadjusted difference-in-differences assumes that all treated practices join the treatment at a single point in time. Wave 1 and 2 unadjusted difference-in-differences represent the isolated effects on treated practices that joined in each wave. Adjusted intervention difference-in-differences incorporates the gradual implementation of the treatment, and controls for covariates and practice and time fixed effects
  2. aAdjusted for gender, age, ethnicity, employment status, number of chronic conditions, time since last GP appointment, and practice and time fixed effects
  3. bAdjusted for gender, age, ethnicity, employment status, number of chronic conditions, and practice and time fixed effects
  4. p < 0.05, ‡‡p < 0.01