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Table 4 Means, standard deviations of items and domains

From: Validation of the nurse leadership and organizational culture (N-LOC) questionnaire

  H1 H2
Leadership Style a Mean (sd) Mean (sd)
 Lasseiz Faire Passive (LFP) 1.96 (0.83) 1.96 (0.99)
  Reacts when problems arise 1.96 (1.13) 1.91 (1.21)
  Reacts only to persistent problems 2.28 (0.99) 2.24 (1.11)
  Stay away from issues 2.02 (0.96) 1.93 (1.09)
  Unavailable when needed 1.99 (1.14) 2.01 (1.13)
  Avoids deciding 1.76 (1.10) 1.89 (1.14)
  Delays responding 1.76 (1.08) 1.81 (1.16)
 Confucius transformational (CT) 2.12 (0.73) 1.87 (0.80)
  Behaviour earns our respect 2.09 (0.99) 1.85 (0.99)
  Considers morality of decisions 2.22 (0.89) 2.04 (0.90)
  Encourages different problem approaches 2.14 (0.90) 2.00 (0.93)
  Brings up new ways to finish tasks 2.02 (0.89) 1.93 (0.93)
  Considers individual differences 2.06 (0.96) 1.88 (0.97)
  Promotes development 2.01 (0.96) 1.81 (0.99)
  Articulate vision 2.07 (0.85) 1.62 (0.99)
  Confident in reaching goals 2.40 (0.80) 1.85 (0.97)
Organizational Culture
 Group (GRP) 3.09 (0.64) 2.84 (0.69)
  Our hospital deals with the changes on the work-related procedure and process flexibly 3.12 (0.81) 2.60 (0.92)
  The relationship among all staffs is built on the basis of strong mutual confidence and cooperation 2.95 (0.90) 2.89 (0.91)
  When performing a task, departments in the hospital cooperate with one another well 3.04 (0.81) 2.79 (0.87)
  Our nurses has confidence in other nurses’ job ability 3.23 (0.86) 3.06 (0.81)
 Rational (RAT) 3.21 (0.69) 2.90 (0.73)
  Our hospital is well organized to facilitate functions of each specialty 3.03 (0.77) 2.81 (0.84)
  Our hospital continuously pursues new methods in order to perform works effectively 3.09 (0.83) 2.70 (0.89)
  Our hospital has the detailed manual of the work 3.50 (0.81) 3.20 (0.84)
 Developmental (DEV) 2.79 (0.70) 2.67 (0.77)
  On behalf of the development of the hospital, our staff is willing to give up their own interest 2.62 (0.94) 2.54 (0.90)
  Our staff shares the goal of the hospital and struggles to accomplish it 2.90 (0.77) 2.71 (0.85)
  Our staff has strong self-confidence on the hospital image 2.84 (0.79) 2.75 (0.89)
 Hierarchical (HIE) 3.62 (0.73) 3.60 (0.77)
  A bureaucratic mood still exists in our hospital 3.68 (0.88) 3.70 (0.97)
  It takes a relatively long time for the experienced staff from outside to adjust to the culture of our hospital 3.60 (0.84) 3.43 (0.88)
  It often takes long time for top-level managers to reflect lower level staff’s opinions in decision making 3.59 (0.94) 3.65 (0.98)
  1. a Brief item labels were only provided for leadership scale due to copyright restrictions
  2. The boldface represents the composite average score for the relevant domain
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