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Table 2 Patient- and provider-level characteristics and rates of preoperative cardiac testing within 60 days prior of a low-risk surgical procedure in Alberta (N = 88,131 procedures) and Saskatchewan (N = 35,072 procedures) between June 2012 and March 2013

From: Measuring the frequency and variation of unnecessary care across Canada

    Preoperative cardiac testing
Characteristic Provincea No. procedures Rate per 100b Odds Ratio (95% CI)c
Patient-level**
Age
 18–44 [ref] Saskatchewan 5476 15.6 1.00
Alberta 16,736 19.0 1.00
 45–64 Saskatchewan 13,186 37.6 2.92 (2.63–3.23)*
Alberta 33,759 38.3 3.40 (3.18–3.62)*
 65+ Saskatchewan 16,410 46.8 4.56 (4.11–5.06)*
Alberta 37,636 42.7 4.89 (4.56–5.24)*
Sex
 Male [ref] Saskatchewan 16,134 46.0 1.00
Alberta 40,945 46.5 1.00
 Female Saskatchewan 18,938 54.0 0.95 (0.90–1.00)
Alberta 47,186 53.5 0.96 (0.93–1.00)
Comorbidityd
 No comorbidity [ref] Saskatchewan 28,640 81.7 1.00
Alberta 63,526 72.1 1.00
 Comorbidity Saskatchewan 6432 18.3 1.84 (1.73–1.96)*
Alberta 24,605 27.9 1.90 (1.82–1.97)*
Provider-level***
Anesthesiology consult
 No [ref] Saskatchewan 34,077 97.2 1.00
Alberta 85,055 96.5 1.00
 Yes Saskatchewan 995 2.8 6.16 (5.34–7.11)*
Alberta 3076 3.5 10.9 (9.99–11.9)*
Medical consult
 No [ref] Saskatchewan 32,432 92.5 1.00
Alberta 82,150 93.2 1.00
 Yes Saskatchewan 2640 7.5 6.30 (5.78–6.76)*
Alberta 5981 6.8 9.93 (9.36–10.5)*
  1. Notes: * P ≤ .05; **patient characteristics are adjusted for each other and procedure type; *** provider characteristics are adjusted for each other and procedure type; CI = confidence interval; [ref] = reference category
  2. a separate models were created for each province versus including province as a dichotomous variable
  3. b rate is the observed rate (# tests/n) at index procedure – (1 to 60 d) for each patient in denominator
  4. c odds ratio and 95% CI estimates based on multiple binary logistic regression models and adjusted for procedure type (endoscopic, ophthalmologic, or other)
  5. d indicator variable representing whether patient had history of any of the following comorbidities: coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation, other cardiac arrhythmia, cardiac valvular disease, renal disease, previous cardiovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, venous thromboembolism, COPD, diabetes, hypertension and/or asthma