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Table 2 Inter and intra-group changes in process outcome measures in control and intervention arms

From: A randomized control trial of primary care-based management of type 2 diabetes by a pharmacist in Pakistan

  Process Outcome Measures
Intra-group comparison; baseline vs follow-ups
Inter-group comparison; final control vs final intervention
[Mean ± SD]
FC vs FI (p-values)
Process Outcomes Control Arm   Intervention Arm  
Baseline, n = 121 Follow up Every 3 Months p-values Baseline, n = 123 Follow up Every 3 Months p-values
1st, n = 121 2nd, n = 121 3rd, n = 52 1st, n = 123 2nd, n = 105 3rd, n = 83
Weight [Kg] 78.2 ± 14.4 78.4 ± 15.1 78.8 ± 14.9 76.3 ± 14.8 0.915 77.5 ± 17.6 75.9 ± 16.9 74.6 ± 16.2 73.7 ± 16.6 0.258 0.35
Waist [cm] 110 ± 16.6 109 ± 16.1 110 ± 16.2 106 ± 14.3 0.567 109 ± 16.5 107 ± 15.9 105 ± 15.3 103 ± 13.6 0.042* 0.28
BMI [Kg/m2] 30.6 ± 4.9 30.6 ± 5.1 30.8 ± 5.1 30.7 ± 5.6 0.986 30.7 ± 6.4 30.2 ± 6.2 29.4 ± 5.9 28.9 ± 5.9 0.131 0.06
HbA1c (%) 10.7 ± 1.7 10.6 ± 2.1 10.2 ± 1.9 9.7 ± 1.3 0.001** 11 ± 1.7 9.5 ± 1.6 8.4 ± 1.1 7.7 ± 0.9 0.0001** 0.0001**
eABG [mg/dL] 261 ± 49.8 257 ± 58.9 246 ± 54.7 232 ± 38 0.0036* 268 ± 50.2 227 ± 44.8 194 ± 32.1 174 ± 25.6 < 0.0001** 0.025*
SBP [mm/Hg] 133 ± 15.4 132 ± 13.4 134 ± 13.2 137 ± 7.1 0.082 145 ± 20.9 133 ± 14.2 127 ± 10.6 124 ± 9.9 < 0.0001** 0.0001**
DBP [mm/Hg] 85 ± 10.4 85 ± 7.9 86 ± 9.8 89 ± 4.2 0.03* 94 ± 10.7 89 ± 7.1 88 ± 6.1 87 ± 5.4 < 0.0001** 0.0001**
Cholesterol [mg/dL] 231 ± 55.7 229 ± 49.6 223 ± 43.7 221 ± 53.2 0.3 223 ± 51.3 187 ± 36.6 169 ± 28.1 153 ± 25.9 < 0.0001** 0.0001**
TG [mg/dL] 191 ± 79.8 186 ± 67.7 175 ± 53.1 172 ± 48.7 0.1 272 ± 112.1 195 ± 53.9 164 ± 39.9 143 ± 31.6 < 0.0001** 0.0001**
HDL-C [mg/dL] 48 ± 12.5 46 ± 10.9 47 ± 12.3 49 ± 13.9 0.437 49 ± 18.2 50 ± 11.4 49 ± 9.7 49 ± 7.9 0.975 0.794
LDL-C [mg/dL] 145 ± 48.5 146 ± 43.1 141 ± 39.4 82 ± 77.9 < 0.0001** 119 ± 50.3 99 ± 34.4 87 ± 26.1 76 ± 21.7 < 0.0001*** 0.0001**
VLDL-C [mg/dL] 38 ± 15.9 37 ± 13.5 35 ± 10.6 20 ± 18.5 < 0.0001** 54 ± 22.4 39 ± 10.8 33 ± 8 29 ± 6.3 < 0.0001** 0.0001**
S Cr [mg/dL] 1.0 ± 0.3 1 ± 0.2 1.0 ± 0.2 1 ± 0.1 0.8 1.1 ± 0.4 0.9 ± 0.2 0.9 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 0.1 < 0.0001** 0.0001**
eGFR [ml/min/1.73m2] 77 ± 18.1 77 ± 15.8 76 ± 16.2 76 ± 14.2 0.5 70 ± 2 80 ± 18.6 87 ± 18.3 94 ± 15.2 < 0.001** 0.0001**
  1. Abbreviations: HbA1c Glycated hemoglobin 1c, eABG Estimated average glucose, SBP Systolic blood pressure, DBP Diastolic blood, HDL-C High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol, LDL-C Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol, VLDL-C Very Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol, Sr Cr Serum Creatinine, eGFR Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate, FC Final control arm vs FI final intervention arm
  2. p-values; *p < 0.05–0.002, **p < 0.001–0.0001