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Table 4 Results of the cost-effectiveness analysis

From: Cost-effectiveness analysis of escalating to natalizumab or switching among immunomodulators in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis in Italy

Type of costs ESC
(B), €
SWI
(A), €
Absolute difference
(B-A), €
Relative difference
(B/A), %
 Treatment costs (€) + Administration costs (€) 327,938 236,288 91,650 38.79%
 Monitoring costs (€) 7335 6278 1057 16.84%
 Relapse costs (€) 41,938 57,350 −15,412 −26.87%
 Adverse event costs (€) 1472 913 559 61.19%
 EDSS direct costs (€) 42,881 57,884 −15,003 −25.92%
 EDSS indirect costs (€) 278,113 359,891 −81,778 −22.72%
 Total direct costs (€) 421,563 358,713 62,850 17.52%
 Total social costs (€) 699,676 718,604 −18,928 −2.63%
Outcomes ESC
(B)
SWI
(A)
Absolute difference
(B-A)
Relative difference (B/A), %
 Total QALYs 11.19 9.67 1.52 15.73%
 Total LYs 20.10 19.67 0.43 2.20%
Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) Escalation (B) vs. Switching (A):
Cost per outcome gained
QALYs (social cost) (ESC DOMINANT)
LYs (social cost) (ESC DOMINANT)
  1. SWI switching (group), ESC escalation (group), EDSS expanded disability status scale, QALY quality-adjusted life year, LY life year