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Table 4 Factors associated with costs at 12 months, based on a generalised linear model for the whole group

From: Factors associated with costs and health outcomes in patients with Back and leg pain in primary care: a prospective cohort analysis

  Coefficient (SE) n = 608
NHS Cost
 Constant 5.95 (0.163) **
General Health
 SF-1 general health −0.051 (0.055)
 RMDQ −0.000 (0.009)
Psychological measures and perceptions
 HADs depression −0.016 (0.014)
AIC: 13.39 BIC: − 3303.19
Societal Costs
 Constant 8.12 (0.403) **
General Health
 SF-1 general health −0.173 (0.099)*
 RMDQ −0.009 (0.018)
Psychological measures and perceptions
 HADs depression −0.013 (0.026)
Personal characteristics
 Agea −0.005 (0.006)
 Comorbiditiesb −0.050 (0.170)
Care pathways-unadjusted (0–2 physiotherapy sessions)
 3 or more physiotherapy sessions −0.307 (0.160)*
 Referrals to spinal specialist services −0.174 (0.256)
AIC:16.00 BIC:-2441.59
  1. NHS National Health Service, RMDQ Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, SE Standard Error, HADs Hospital and Anxiety Depression scale
  2. **p < 0.05,*p < 0.1
  3. aSex is measured as 1 Female 0 Male
  4. bComorbidities included none, one, 2 or more chest problems, heart problems, raised BP, diabetes, circulation problems in leg(s)