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Table 1 Demographics and Healthcare Utilization of Patients by Segments in Baseline Year 2012

From: Predictive ability of an expert-defined population segmentation framework for healthcare utilization and mortality - a retrospective cohort study

Demographics Mostly Healthy Serious Acute Stable Chronic Complex Chronic without Frequent Hospital Admissions Complex Chronic with Frequent Hospital Admissions End of Life All p-valuea
Total (%) 481,772 (58.8%) 200,925 (24.5%) 43,757 (5.3%) 87,632 (10.7%) 3935 (0.5%) 1972 (0.2%) 819,993 (100.0%)  
Age (in years)
 Mean (SD) 43.9 (15.6) 60.6 (13.9) 42.3 (15.8) 60.8 (15.0) 63.5 (14.5) 58.0 (13.1) 49.8 (17.2) < 0.001
 21–30 (%) 119,741 (24.9%) 6439 (3.2%) 11,932 (27.3%) 3660 (4.2%) 102 (2.6%) 56 (2.8%) 141,930 (17.3%) < 0.001
 31–40 (%) 104,275 (21.6%) 9602 (4.8%) 12,832 (29.3%) 5229 (6.0%) 186 (4.7%) 124 (6.3%) 132,248 (16.1%)  
 41–50 (%) 95,434 (19.8%) 25,956 (12.9%) 6686 (15.3%) 10,914 (12.5%) 402 (10.2%) 347 (17.6%) 139,749 (17.0%)  
 51–60 (%) 84,221 (17.5%) 54,330 (27.0%) 5524 (12.6%) 21,110 (24.1%) 867 (22.0%) 598 (30.3%) 166,640 (20.3%)  
 61–70 (%) 49,255 (10.2%) 54,825 (27.3%) 3754 (8.6%) 21,970 (25.1%) 1003 (25.5%) 500 (25.4%) 131,307 (16.0%)  
 71–80 (%) 22,399 (4.6%) 36,246 (18.0%) 2161 (4.9%) 17,423 (19.9%) 937 (23.8%) 264 (13.4%) 79,430 (9.7%)  
 81–90 (%) 5878 (1.2%) 12,184 (6.1%) 750 (1.7%) 6509 (7.4%) 380 (9.7%) 74 (3.8%) 25,775 (3.1%)  
 >  90 (%) 569 (0.1%) 1343 (0.7%) 108 (0.2%) 827 (0.9%) 58 (1.5%) 9 (0.5%) 2914 (0.4%)  
Gender
 Male (%) 197,774 (41.1%) 90,856 (45.2%) 12,466 (28.5%) 40,581 (46.3%) 2017 (51.3%) 809 (41.0%) 344,503 (42.0%) < 0.001
Ethnicity
 Chinese (%) 328,982 (68.3%) 154,035 (76.7%) 25,425 (58.1%) 66,829 (76.3%) 2821 (71.7%) 1503 (76.2%) 579,595 (70.7%) < 0.001
 Malay (%) 47,270 (9.8%) 24,439 (12.2%) 6992 (16.0%) 8864 (10.1%) 526 (13.4%) 157 (8.0%) 88,248 (10.8%)  
 Indian (%) 43,413 (9.0%) 14,218 (7.1%) 5100 (11.7%) 7084 (8.1%) 407 (10.3%) 82 (4.2%) 70,304 (8.6%)  
 Others (%) 62,107 (12.9%) 8233 (4.1%) 6240 (14.3%) 4855 (5.5%) 181 (4.6%) 230 (11.7%) 81,846 (10.0%)  
ED visits in 2012
 Median (IQR) 0 (0–0) 0 (0–0) 0 (0–0) 0 (0–1) 3 (1–4) 0 (0–1) 0 (0–0) < 0.001
 Yes (%) 20,206 (4.2%) 13,386 (6.7%) 3004 (6.9%) 16,786 (19.2%) 1998 (50.8%) 345 (17.5%) 55,725 (6.8%) < 0.001
SOC visits in 2012
 Median (IQR) 1 (0–3) 0 (0–2) 6 (3–12) 5 (2–11) 20 (12–33) 23 (9–45) 1 (0–4) < 0.001
 Yes (%) 199,246 (41.4%) 81,491 (40.6%) 20,443 (46.7%) 64,523 (73.6%) 3149 (80.0%) 1438 (72.9%) 370,290 (45.2%) < 0.001
Hospital Admissions in 2012
 Median (IQR) 0 (0–0) 0 (0–0) 1 (1–1) 0 (0–1) 4 (3–5) 1 (0–2) 0 (0–0) < 0.001
 Yes (%) 17,258 (3.6%) 10,187 (5.1%) 4191 (9.6%) 18,760 (21.4%) 2154 (54.7%) 584 (29.6%) 53,134 (6.5%) < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: ED Emergency Department, SOC Specialist Outpatient Clinic. Numbers were presented as median ± interquartile range or number (%) as appropriate
  2. a Chi-square for categorical variables and one-way ANOVA test for continuous variables