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Table 5 Environmental Human Health burden in Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs)

From: Human health benefit and burden of the schizophrenia health care pathway in Belgium: paliperidone palmitate long-acting injections

TI API Drug Production Packaging Distribution & Supply End-of-Life disposal & drug fate GP visits Psychiatrist visits Ambulatory care visits General hospital days Psychiatric hospital days
Water N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 2.20E-04 3.99E-03
Nitrogen N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00
Chemicals - Reagents N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00
Chemicals - Solvents N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00
Energy - Natural Gas N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 7.20E-04 4.29E-02
Energy - Electricity N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 3.85E-02 3.79E-01
Energy - Fuel N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 2.73E-02 5.41E-02
Packaging materials N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00
Industrial waste treatment N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00
Transport N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 3.99E-03 3.06E-01 6.08E-03 5.49E-03 8.70E-02
End-of-Life N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00
PP1M
Water 1.72E-06 4.38E-07 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 9.32E-05 1.49E-03
Nitrogen 6.25E-05 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00
Chemicals - Reagents 1.41E-03 1.89E-05 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00
Chemicals - Solvents 5.94E-04 6.76E-08 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00
Energy - Natural Gas 2.43E-03 2.06E-03 8.96E-04 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 3.05E-04 1.60E-02
Energy - Electricity 2.74E-03 1.48E-04 7.95E-05 −7.29E-06 −4.02E-04 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 1.63E-02 1.42E-01
Energy - Fuel 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 1.16E-02 2.02E-02
Packaging materials ND 4.36E-08 2.65E-03 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00
Industrial waste treatment 9.95E-04 5.12E-07 0.00E+ 00 6.01E-06 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00
Transport 1.61E-05 0.00E+ 00 1.16E-04 5.13E-05 0.00E+ 00 4.60E-03 3.16E-01 2.30E-03 2.33E-03 3.25E-02
End-of-Life ND ND 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 3.75E-04 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00
PP3M
Water 2.19E-06 5.67E-07 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 4.95E-05 7.92E-04
Nitrogen 7.94E-05 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00
Chemicals - Reagents 1.79E-03 2.28E-05 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00
Chemicals - Solvents 7.55E-04 8.59E-08 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00
Energy - Natural Gas 3.09E-03 2.62E-03 3.33E-04 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 1.62E-04 8.51E-03
Energy - Electricity 3.48E-03 1.88E-04 2.98E-05 −3.18E-06 −1.45E-04 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 8.66E-03 7.51E-02
Energy - Fuel 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 6.14E-03 1.07E-02
Packaging materials ND 7.57E-08 1.10E-03 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00
Industrial waste treatment 1.26E-03 6.51E-07 0.00E+ 00 2.62E-06 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00
Transport 2.04E-05 0.00E+ 00 4.65E-05 2.24E-05 0.00E+ 00 4.77E-03 3.18E-01 1.22E-03 1.24E-03 1.73E-02
End-of-Life ND ND 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 1.48E-04 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00 0.00E+ 00
  1. Abbreviations: PP1M, paliperidone palmitate once-monthly injection; PP3M, paliperidone palmitate three-monthly injection; TI, Treatment Interruption; API, Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient; GP, General Practitioner; ND, Non-Determined; N/A, Not Applicable