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Table 2 Frequency and usefulness of methods of solving ethical problems

From: Ethical problems in nursing management – a cross-sectional survey about solving problems

Method of solving ethical problem   Frequency of use (scale 1–5)a Usefulness (scale 1–4)b
  categ. Mean Median SD often % always % n order of usefulness Mean Median SD somewhat useful very useful n
1. Discussion with nurses D 4.36 4.00 0.63 51 43 213 1. 3.83 4.00 0,37 17 83 211
2. Relying on personal values D 3.96 4.00 0.93 43 31 209 12. 3.55 4.00 0.58 38 58 200
3. Discussion with manager colleagues D 3.77 4.00 0.78 56 14 214 4. 3.68 4.00 0.52 29 69 210
4. Discussion with own manager D 3.74 4.00 0.82 50 15 214 6. 3.62 4.00 0.62 27 68 207
5. Situation-specific, pre-defined instructions I 3.40 4.00 1.07 38 14 203 13. 3.55 4.00 0.59 36 59 185
6.Discussing with the doctor treating the patient D 3.34 3.00 1.01 28 11 207 11. 3.55 4.00 0.58 37 59 192
7. Act on the Status and Rights of Patients (785/1992) A 3.32 3.00 0.97 26 13 211 9. 3,58 4.00 0.52 39 59 199
8. Discussion with the patient D 3,31 3.00 1.06 24 16 211 3. 3.68 4.00 0.50 29 69 204
9. Organisation’s explicitly stated values or ethical principles I 3.29 3.00 1.02 33 11 209 24. 3.34 3.00 0.70 41 46 185
10. Work shift planning W 3.29 3.00 1.19 32 16 205 20. 3.46 4.00 0.63 40 53 181
11. Changes in operational practices W 3.28 3.00 0.70 34 2 214 8. 3.60 4.00 0.51 38 61 205
12. Negotiating with all parties involved in the problem D 3.26 3.00 1.02 27 13 209 2. 3.71 4.00 0.49 26 72 202
13. Work unit-specific explicitly stated values or ethical principles I 3.25 3.00 1.17 33 14 206 18. 3.47 4.00 0.61 41 53 179
14. Debriefing problematic situations in a working group D 3.17 3.00 1.08 24 14 210 7. 3.61 4.00 0.57 30 65 194
15. Rearrangement of work duties within a unit W 3.15 3.00 0.83 31 3 214 15. 3.51 4.00 0.54 45 53 199
16. Discussing with the patient’s family members D 3.14 3.00 1.09 27 12 205 5. 3.62 4.00 0.54 32 65 191
17. Health Care Act (1326/2010) A 3.10 3.00 1.02 25 9 208 16. 3.49 4.00 0.57 43 53 181
18. Discussing with other health care professionals D 3.08 3.00 0.86 24 5 212 21. 3.42 3.00 0.58 49 46 200
19. Professional codes of ethics I 2.88 3.00 1.04 16 9 210 26. 3.31 3.00 0.66 48 42 181
20. Work rotation W 2.86 3.00 0.96 23 3 213 10. 3.56 4.00 0.56 37 59 187
21. Personal Data Act (523/1999) A 2.79 3.00 1.09 16 8 207 19. 3.47 4.00 0.58 44 51 177
22. Use of extra personnel W 2.76 3.00 0.99 22 2 211 23. 3.38 3.00 0.68 41 49 180
23. Some other act A 2.65 3.00 1.38 21 11 113 14. 3.53 4.00 0.57 40 56 80
24. Rearrangement of work duties between units W 2.65 3.00 0.94 19 0 211 22. 3.38 3.00 0.56 54 42 178
25. Occupational health and safety organisation O 2.62 3.00 0.90 12 2 214 35. 3.03 3.00 0.73 52 26 183
26. Professional guidance O 2.57 3.00 1.08 18 3 211 25. 3.33 3.00 0.66 47 43 184
27. Ethics literature, articles I 2.56 3.00 0.91 13 1 210 30. 3.21 3.00 0.63 58 32 170
28. Occupational health care O 2.55 3.00 0.95 14 1 214 36. 3.03 3.00 0.78 47 29 180
29. The ETENE ethical recommendations for health care I 2.38 2.00 1.02 12 1 205 28. 3.26 3.00 0.64 54 36 145
30. Participation in training concerning ethics O 2.36 2.00 0.81 8 0 210 29. 3.23 3.00 0.65 56 34 173
31. Code of ethics for nurse managers I 2.34 2.00 1.04 12 2 199 31. 3.16 3.00 0.69 52 33 135
32. Regulation of patient flow W 2.32 2.00 1.12 9 5 199 32. 3.09 3.00 0.79 51 31 147
33. Transferring a person to another unit W 2.27 2.00 0.82 4 0 211 27. 3.31 3.00 0.65 50 41 171
34. Mental Health Act (1116/1990) A 2.26 2.00 1.21 9 7 202 17. 3.48 4.00 0.65 40 55 128
35. Ethics-related introductions in meetings D 1.99 2.00 0.92 3 1 208 33. 3.05 3.00 0.67 60 23 120
36. Theologian or other specialist in spiritual matters O 1.78 2.00 0.90 4 0 210 38. 2.93 3.00 0.80 57 21 126
37. Ethics checklists I 1.60 1.00 0.86 3 1 196 34. 3.05 3.00 0.76 54 27 84
38. Ethics specialist O 1.24 1.00 0.56 1 0 200 37. 2.97 3.00 0.77 55 23 65
39. Ethics committee dealing with nursing solutions (excluding research ethics) O 1.23 1.00 0.51 2 0 200 39. 2.88 3.00 0.81 47 23 66
40. Keeping an ethics journal D 1.16 1.00 0.40 0 0 207 40. 2.49 2.00 0.93 34 15 74
  1. categories: D Discussions and deliberation, W Work arrangements, A Acts and degrees, I Written instructions and ethical principles, O Outside experts
  2. aHigher values mean more often
  3. b Higher values mean more useful