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Table 3 PRIMEtime CE risk factors operating through intermediate variables, exposure parameters, outcomes, and modelled uncertainty distributions. Adapted and updated from Cobiac et al.[32] Dietary relative risks adjusted for energy intake where possible

From: PRIMEtime CE: a multistate life table model for estimating the cost-effectiveness of interventions affecting diet and physical activity

Risk factors operating through intermediate variables
Parameter Exposure parameters Outcomes Unit of change Distribution of uncertainty range Change in value of outcome (SE) Notes
 Total fat % of total energy [49] Total serum cholesterol (mmol/l) [71] Per 1% energy total fat Normal 0.020 (0.005)  
 Saturated fat % of total energy [49] Total serum cholesterol (mmol/l) [71] Per 1% energy saturated fat Normal 0.052 (0.003)  
 Monounsaturated fatty acids % of total energy [49] Total serum cholesterol (mmol/l) [71] Per 1% energy MUFA Normal 0.005 (0.003)  
 Polyunsaturated fatty acids % of total energy [49] Total serum cholesterol (mmol/l) [71] Per 1% energy PUFA Normal −0.026 (0.004)  
 Dietary cholesterol mg/day [49] Total serum cholesterol (mmol/l) [71] Per 1 g/day dietary cholesterol Normal 0.0007 (0.0001)  
 Salt consumption g/day [49] Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) [72] Per 100 mmol/24 h urinary sodium Normal 5.80 (1.71) Grams of salt consumed per day converted into urinary sodium excretion.
 Total energy kJ/day [49] BMI (kg/m2) [73]     Details of equations describing the relationship between energy intake and body weight for men and women can be found in Christiansen and Garby [74].
  1. SD standard deviation, NDNS National Diet and Nutrition Survey, CHD coronary heart disease, BMI body mass index, MET Metabolic Equivalent of Task