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Table 4 Standardized SEM Results

From: The role of psychological safety and learning behavior in the development of effective quality improvement teams in Ghana: an observational study

Factor Partial Mediation Complete Mediation
Standardized Estimates Standard Error Standardized Estimates Standard Error
QI Implementation
 on Learning Behavior 0.284* 0.147 0.220** 0.097
 on Psychological Safety −0.113 0.138   
 on Team Leadership −0.064 0.073   
 on Perceived Support −0.156 0.149   
on Hospital staff size 0.016 0.183 0.003 0.069
on Average age −0.150* 0.079 −0.144** 0.070
on QI team size 0.134 0.109 0.111 0.108
on Rural hospital^ −0.029 0.183 −0.039 0.181
on Staff-to-bed ratio 0.163* 0.083 0.174*** 0.065
Learning Behavior
 on Psychological Safety 0.530** 0.233 0.779*** 0.184
 on Team Leadership 0.313* 0.170   
 on Perceived Support 0.000 0.070   
on Hospital staff size −0.115 0.118 −0.035 0.111
on Average age −0.013 0.066 −0.018 0.065
on QI team size 0.040 0.131 0.040 0.148
on Rural hospital^ 0.010 0.074 0.070 0.109
on Staff-to-bed ratio 0.083 0.063 0.092 0.126
Psychological Safety
 on Team Leadership 0.386 0.175 0.492*** 0.167
 on Perceived Support 0.201 0.142 0.184 0.152
on Hospital staff size −0.198 0.176 −0.227 0.142
on Average age 0.046 0.059 0.044 0.075
on QI team size 0.201*** 0.038 0.187*** 0.045
on Rural hospital^ 0.003 0.093 −0.018 0.087
on Staff-to-bed ratio −0.002 0.143 0.013 0.152
Team Leadership
 with Perceived Support 0.414*** 0.089 0.415*** 0.081
with Hospital staff size −0.020 0.083 −0.018 0.083
with Average age −0.005 0.077 −0.007 0.077
with QI team size 0.301*** 0.086 0.298*** 0.086
with Rural hospital^ 0.311*** 0.035 0.309*** 0.036
with Staff-to-bed ratio 0.186* 0.109 0.185* 0.108
Perceived Support
with Hospital staff size −0.141** 0.060 −0.137** 0.059
with Average age 0.072 0.118 0.072 0.118
with QI team size 0.086 0.148 0.088 0.147
with Rural hospital^ 0.125*** 0.028 0.127*** 0.031
with Staff-to-bed ratio 0.087 0.058 0.091 0.058
  1. N = 122; fit statistics shown in Table 2
  2. ^ Compared to urban hospitals
  3. *Statistically significant at p < 0.10
  4. **Statistically significant at p < 0.05
  5. ***Statistically significant at p < 0.01
  6. Standardized estimates indicate the change in y associated with a one standard deviation change in x