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Table 1 Overview of Variables and Measures

From: The role of psychological safety and learning behavior in the development of effective quality improvement teams in Ghana: an observational study

Model Construct Variable Measure Measure Type Data Source
Control Variables Staff-to-bed ratio Total number of hospital staff divided by total number of hospital beds Continuous Administrative Dataset
Rural Indicator of whether a hospital is rural or other (e.g., urban or peri-urban) Binary:
0 = N; 1 = Y
Administrative Dataset
QI team size Average response to “Estimate the number of people who are on your QI team” Continuous QI Team Questionnaire
Average age Average response to “Age (years)” Continuous QI Team Questionnaire
Hospital staff size Total number of staff that work at the hospital Continuous Administrative Dataset
Predictors
 Latent Variable: Perceived Support Support-1 It is easy for my team to obtain expert assistance when something comes up that we don’t know how to handle. Aggregate (7-pt. Likert) QI Team Questionnaire
Support-2 My team has the financial resources it needs carry out QI activities. Aggregate (7-pt. Likert) QI Team Questionnaire
Support-3 Leaders at my facility strongly support the work of my team. Aggregate (7-pt. Likert) QI Team Questionnaire
Support-4 Leaders at my facility have made QI a high priority. Aggregate (7-pt. Likert) QI Team Questionnaire
 Latent Variable: Team Leadership Lead-1 There is a person on my team who initiates meetings to discuss the team’s progress. Aggregate (7-pt. Likert) QI Team Questionnaire
Lead-2 There is a person on my team who is available for consultation on problems. Aggregate (7-pt. Likert) QI Team Questionnaire
Lead-3 There is a person on my team who provides feedback on team member performance, identifying strengths and weaknesses. Aggregate (7-pt. Likert) QI Team Questionnaire
 Latent Variable: Psychological Safety Safety-1 All members of the team are encouraged to speak up and ask questions, regardless of their position in the organization. Aggregate (7-pt. Likert) QI Team Questionnaire
Safety-2 We appreciate and build upon our individual differences. Aggregate (7-pt. Likert) QI Team Questionnaire
Safety-3 It is DIFFICULT to ask other members of my team for help. Aggregate (7-pt. Likert) QI Team Questionnaire
Safety-4 People on this team sometimes REJECT OTHERS for being different. Aggregate (7-pt. Likert) QI Team Questionnaire
Safety-5 If you make a mistake on my team, it is often HELD AGAINST YOU. Aggregate (7-pt. Likert) QI Team Questionnaire
 Latent Variable: Learning Behavior Learn-1 My team openly discusses mistakes so that we can learn from them. Aggregate (7-pt. Likert) QI Team Questionnaire
Learn-2 We regularly take time to learn ways to improve how we do our work. Aggregate (7-pt. Likert) QI Team Questionnaire
Learn-3 My team always takes time to stop and reflect on our work. Aggregate (7-pt. Likert) QI Team Questionnaire
Team Effectiveness
 Latent Variable: QI Implementation Perform-1 This team meets or exceeds the expectations of Project Fives Alive. 7-pt. Likert Project Officer Survey
Perform-2 This team does superb work. 7-pt. Likert Project Officer Survey
Perform-3 This team keeps getting better and better. 7-pt. Likert Project Officer Survey
QI Practice-1 The team evaluates reasons for variation in how work is carried out. 7-pt. Likert Project Officer Survey
QI Practice-2 The team has made an actual change in the way some aspect of work gets done. 7-pt. Likert Project Officer Survey
QI Practice-3 The team meets frequently to work on quality improvement. 7-pt. Likert Project Officer Survey