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Table 2 The themes, categories, subcategories and codes related to the non-compliance of the therapeutic orders prescribed by specialists

From: Effective factors in non-compliance with therapeutic orders of specialists in outpatient clinics in Iran: a qualitative study

Theme Category Subcategory Code
Individual-related (patient-centered) factors Demographic factors Age  
Educational level  
Marital Status  
Job type  
Cognitive factors (beliefs) Health literacy  
Patient knowledge  
Health importance degree for the individual and health motivations  
Individual’s recognition and perception from nature  
Previous experience  
Religious beliefs’ perception and believing believe in specialisms
cultural features and values
Ethnic-religious beliefs
Folk perspectives and non-professional interventions
Individual’s perception, expectations and judgment from treatment period
Medications effectiveness perception
Mental stereotypes
Reasoning power and decision- making attitudes  
Psychological factors (negative attitudes toward treatment) Fear of disclosing information (stigmatization)  
Depression and weakness  
Fear and denial  
Behavioral factors Behavioral habits and individual’s ability to change them/behavioral habits and lifestyle  
Disease-related factors Disease type   
Disease stage and severity   
comorbidities (disease complexity and having chronic diseases)/ Underlying diseases   
Therapy-related factors Route of administration   
Treatment complexity   
Duration of the treatment period   
Medication side effects   
The healthcare provider-related (healthcare system) factors Individual attributes Ethics and behavior (professional ethics)  
Background and experience  
Therapist’s literacy  
communication and patients’ trust in physicians  
The extent of doctor’s recognition from patients and doctor’s decision-making attitude (prescribing a lot or few amounts of medications)  
Power enforcing attitude (therapist to patient)  
Professional principles Enough time (therapist for the patient)
Regular attendance (therapist)
Guidelines following
Service provision system characteristics Ownership and nature  
Service provision system structure Referral system
Interaction and communication mechanisms between therapist and patient (participation, decision-making and interaction attitudes)
Intervention of specialties and lack of patient guidance system
Standards and protocols
Payment system Payment mechanism (type)
Level of payment (price)
Insurance coverage/basic and supplementary
Access Waiting time
Physical facilities
Geographical access
Medication access (medication rareness)
Informational infrastructures
Equipment and technology
Legal Guarantees Lack of supervision
Doctor’s misconduct/the claim of doctor’s misconduct
Corruption in service provision
The systematic interactions between traditional and modern medicine Convergence between two types of medicine
Different application of two medicines in the disease treatment
Socioeconomic-related factors Economic issues Direct costs of treatment Possibility of costs payment by household (low income)
Indirect costs of treatment (transportation, diet)  
Social issues Job security (anxiety about job loss)  
Concerns and environmental stresses (especially in the workplace)  
Advertising, Media and Cyberspace  
Pride in treatment  
Supportive system Family
Friends and relatives
Social groups