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Table 4 Regression models of rehabilitation use and expenditure

From: Utilization and medical costs of outpatient rehabilitation among children with autism spectrum conditions in Taiwan

Variable(reference) Average of frequencya
IRR (95%CI)
ln(Average annual cost)b
β (95%CI)
ln(Average total annual cost)b
β (95%CI)
Constant 14.054 (9.615–20.542)** 10.024 (9.650–10.398)** 7.492 (7.328–7.656)**
Year(2008)
 2009 1.123 (1.053–1.197)** 0.192 (0.097–0.287)** 0.033 (− 0.001–0.066)
 2010 1.116 (1.047–1.190)** 0.133 (0.035–0.230)* 0.013 (− 0.021–0.046)
Age(preschool age)
 School age 0.812 (0.768–0.858)** − 0.350 (− 0.433- -0.268)* * − 0.144 (− 0.172- -0.116)**
Gender (girl)
 Boy 1.009 (0.941–1.083) − 0.074 (− 0.180–0.031) − 0.078 (− 0.115- -0.041)**
Medical setting(Medical Center)
 Metropolitan hospital 1.231 (1.128–1.344)** 0.334 (0.205–0.462)** 0.128 (0.079–0.177)**
 Local hospital 1.139 (0.996–1.304) 0.457 (0.264–0.650)** 0.337 (0.268–0.406)**
 Clinic 1.188 (1.026–1.376)* 0.196 (− 0.015–0.406) 0.049 (− 0.026–0.123)
Teaching hospital(no)
 Yes 0.717 (0.638–0.805)** −0.278 (− 0.443- -0.113)** 0.080 (0.022–0.138)**
Location(East)
 Taipei 1.397 (0.983–1.987) 0.384 (0.067–0.700)* 0.269 (0.118–0.420)**
 North 1.687 (1.182–2.409)** 0.579 (0.251–0.907)** 0.284 (0.130–0.437)**
 Central 1.512 (1.056–2.165)* 0.247 (−0.088–0.582) 0.064 (− 0.092–0.221)
 South 1.434 (0.999–2.059) 0.228 (−0.112–0.568) 0.067 (− 0.094–0.228)
 Kaohsiung and Pingtung 1.704 (1.190–2.441)** 0.625 (0.290–0.959)** 0.307 (0.152–0.461)**
  1. Average frequency: total annual outpatient rehabilitation visits/annual number of patients
  2. Average cost/claim point: average universal outpatient claim
  3. Average total annual cost/claim point: Average cost × average frequency
  4. aNegative binomial model reporting incidence-rate ratios
  5. bNatural logarithm of costs using multiple linear regression
  6. *p < 0.05
  7. **p < 0.01