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Table 2 Variables assessed by the 37-item paper-pencil questionnaire

From: The German version of the high-performance work systems questionnaire (HPWS-G) in the context of patient safety: a validation study in a Swiss university hospital

Variable Description Example items Measurement
HPWS Ten-item HPWS questionnaire [5] assessing HPWS practices within a given unit. See Table 1 5-point Likert scale: ‘disagree strongly’ - ‘agree strongly’ (with ‘neutral’); Cronbach’s α = .92 [5]
Teamwork climate (TC) Six-item subscale from the SAQ [27] (original (English) version [28]) assessing the perceived quality of teamwork and collaboration within a given unit [28]. ‘The physicians and nurses here work together as a well-coordinated team.’ 5-point Likert scale ‘disagree strongly’ - ‘agree strongly’ (with ‘neutral’); Cronbach’s α = .436–.791 [27]
Safety climate (SC) Seven-item subscale from the SAQ [27] (original (English) version [28]) assessing perception of how strong and proactive a given unit’s organizational commitment to safety is [28]. ‘The culture in this clinical area makes it easy to learn from the errors of others.’ See above
Organisational learning (OL) Three-item subscale from the HSOPSC [18] (original (English) version [29]) assesses whether mistakes have led to positive changes and changes are evaluated for their effectiveness [30]. ‘We are actively doing things to improve patient safety.’ 5-point Likert scale ‘strongly disagree’ - ‘strongly agree’ (with ‘neither agree or disagree’); one item ranged from ‘never’ to ‘more than once a month’; Cronbach’s α = .61–.88 [18]
Critical incident reporting system (CIRS) Three self-developed items assessing the use of CIRSs. ‘I use the CIRS reporting system for the analysis of patient-related events/(near-misses) errors.’ 5-point Likert scale ‘strongly disagree’ - ‘strongly agree’ (with ‘neither agree or disagree’)
Patient safety grade (PS) One self-developed item assesses the overall grade of patient safety within a given unit. ‘What is the overall grade of patient safety in your clinical area?’ 10-point visual analogue scale ‘very unsafe’ - ‘very safe’
Demographic data Seven items assessing each participant’s socio-demographic profile ‘Do you have a management function?’ Dichotomous answer format