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Table 1 Background characteristics of each county, average of 2008–2012

From: Geographical variations in patient-reported outcomes after total hip arthroplasty between 2008 - 2012

County Blekinge Dalarna Gotland Gävleborg Halland Jämtland Jönköping
 Total n 665 1452 249 1614 2072 636 1404
 Sex, n female (%) 353 (53.1) 785 (54.1) 130 (52.2) 854 (52.9) 1150 (55.5) 372 (58.5) 788 (56.1)
 mean Age (sd) 68.6 (9.7) 68.6 (9.5) 67.8 (9.2) 67.5 (9.8) 68.0 (9.6) 69.0 (9.4) 68.7 (10.0)
 mean BMI (sd) 27.3 (4.6) 27.8 (4.8) 28.5 (12.7) 27.7 (4.7) 27.1 (6.0) 27.3 (4.3) 27.7 (8.1)
 mean Elixhauser (sd) 1.06 (1.03) 0.92 (1.02) 0.38 (0.70) 0.65 (0.97) 0.66 (0.97) 0.52 (0.93) 0.99 (1.06)
 Marital status (%)
  married 383 (57.6) 798 (55.0) 140 (56.2) 894 (55.4) 1293 (62.4) 339 (53.3) 904 (64.4)
  unmarried 77 (11.6) 180 (12.4) 30 (12.0) 210 (13.0) 167 (8.1) 90 (14.2) 125 (8.9)
  divorced 99 (14.9) 262 (18.0) 39 (15.7) 288 (17.8) 324 (15.6) 102 (16.0) 170 (12.1)
  widow/widower 106 (15.9) 212 (14.6) 40 (16.1) 222 (13.8) 288 (13.9) 105 (16.5) 205 (14.6)
 Education attainment (%)
  primary 231 (34.7) 539 (37.1) 94 (37.8) 609 (37.7) 734 (35.4) 212 (33.3) 632 (45.0)
  upper secondary 281 (42.3) 660 (45.5) 100 (40.2) 671 (41.6) 834 (40.3) 285 (44.8) 528 (37.6)
  higher 153 (23.0) 253 (17.4) 55 (22.1) 334 (20.7) 504 (24.3) 139 (21.9) 244 (17.4)
 median disposable income/year SEK (mean) 153,200 (178178) 148,600 (176903) 146,300 (174769) 156,800 (188098) 166,450 (213306) 147,150 (181821) 152,950 (193048)
 Preoperative PROs
  mean EQ-5D (sd) 0.44 (0.32) 0.40 (0.31) 0.45 (0.30) 0.41 (0.32) 0.45 (0.31) 0.43 (0.30) 0.44 (0.30)
  mean EQ VAS (sd) 55.8 (21.5) 53.1 (22.3) 56.3 (21.6) 49.6 (21.9) 56.5 (22.7) 57.1 (21.8) 58.6 (20.4)
  mean pain VAS (sd) 59.1 (15.8) 62.2 (16.1) 60.6 (16.5) 63.0 (14.5) 61.9 (16.5) 61.0 (16.0) 61.8 (15.3)
 Postoperative PROs
  mean EQ-5D (sd) 0.81 (0.23) 0.78 (0.23) 0.77 (0.24) 0.78 (0.25) 0.81 (0.23) 0.82 (0.21) 0.80 (0.22)
  mean EQ VAS (sd) 77.0 (20.1) 75.7 (20.2) 74.9 (20.1) 76.3 (21.3) 78.0 (19.5) 78.6 (18.7) 77.2 (18.7)
  mean pain VAS (sd) 13.1 (16.7) 13.7 (17.7) 15.7 (18.3) 13.7 (18.6) 12.7 (17.8) 11.9 (15.1) 13.6 (17.9)
 mean satisfaction VAS (sd) 14.6 (19.1) 15.9 (20.3) 19.1 (22.3) 15.4 (20.8) 14.7 (20.9) 13.1 (17.2) 15.3 (18.9)
County Kalmar Kronoberg Norrbotten Skåne Stockholm Södermanland Uppsala
 Total n 1356 741 1102 4180 7075 1183 1398
 Sex, n female (%) 745 (54.9) 379 (51.1) 624 (56.6) 2382 (57.0) 4235 (59.9) 678 (57.3) 764 (54.6)
 mean Age (sd) 68.0 (9.7) 68.4 (10.3) 68.1 (9.6) 68.5 (10.3) 67.4 (10.2) 68.2 (9.8) 67.5 (9.9)
 mean BMI (sd) 27.7 (4.6) 27.3 (4.1) 27.4 (4.3) 27.4 (5.7) 26.8 (5.0) 27.4 (4.2) 27.0 (4.3)
 mean Elixhauser (sd) 0.60 (0.95) 0.74 (0.99) 0.93 (1.07) 1.11 (1.17) 0.54 (0.93) 0.81 (0.99) 0.87 (1.09)
 Marital status (%)
  married 825 (60.8) 466 (62.9) 668 (60.6) 2462 (58.9) 3793 (53.6) 688 (58.2) 829 (59.3)
  unmarried 139 (10.3) 75 (10.1) 111 (10.1) 365 (8.7) 882 (12.5) 91 (7.7) 147 (10.5)
  divorced 176 (13.0) 85 (11.5) 160 (14.5) 709 (17.0) 1443 (20.4) 205 (17.3) 236 (16.9)
  widow/widower 216 (15.9) 115 (15.5) 163 (14.8) 644 (15.4) 957 (13.5) 199 (16.8) 186 (13.3)
 Education attainment (%)
  primary 563 (41.5) 272 (36.7) 359 (32.6) 1445 (34.6) 1610 (22.8) 437 (36.9) 434 (31.0)
  upper secondary 512 (37.8) 317 (42.8) 502 (45.6) 1647 (39.4) 2933 (41.5) 488 (41.3) 520 (37.2)
  higher 281 (20.7) 152 (20.5) 241 (21.9) 1088 (26.0) 2532 (35.8) 258 (21.8) 444 (31.8)
 median disposable income/year SEK (mean) 154,150 (199187) 154,000 (206228) 153,500 (183822) 162,200 (213102) 194,400 (268747) 156,700 (187498) 176,800 (257385)
 Preoperative PROs
  mean EQ-5D (sd) 0.44 (0.31) 0.49 (0.30) 0.40 (0.31) 0.41 (0.31) 0.42 (0.32) 0.40 (0.32) 0.44 (0.31)
  mean EQ VAS (sd) 55.9 (21.8) 59.5 (20.3) 50.8 (22.7) 56.1 (22.7) 55.3 (22.1) 53.5 (21.5) 54.5 (21.6)
  mean pain VAS (sd) 60.6 (15.7) 58.6 (15.7) 64.9 (14.6) 62.3 (15.7) 63.7 (16.3) 61.7 (15.5) 59.4 (15.5)
 Postoperative PROs
  mean EQ-5D (sd) 0.80 (0.22) 0.82 (0.19) 0.81 (0.22) 0.81 (0.22) 0.78 (0.24) 0.78 (0.23) 0.78 (0.24)
  mean EQ VAS (sd) 77.7 (19.4) 77.5 (18.5) 78.5 (18.9) 78.7 (18.9) 76.4 (20.0) 75.3 (20.5) 75.6 (20.1)
  mean pain VAS (sd) 12.5 (16.1) 12.6 (16.9) 12.4 (16.5) 13.1 (17.4) 13.8 (18.2) 14.8 (18.7) 14.4 (18.4)
  mean satisfaction VAS (sd) 13.8 (18.2) 14.0 (19.3) 13.3 (17.1) 13.3 (18.9) 16.4 (21.9) 18.3 (22.3) 17.4 (22.3)
County Värmland Västerbotten Västernorrland Västmanland Västra Götaland Örebro Östergötland
 Total n 1109 979 900 653 4742 1327 1398
 Sex, n female (%) 624 (56.3) 552 (56.4) 531 (59.0) 358 (54.8) 2623 (55.3) 726 (54.7) 751 (53.7)
 mean Age (sd) 69.2 (9.7) 67.4 (9.9) 68.4 (8.8) 68.2 (9.5) 68.1 (10.3) 67.6 (9.6) 68.3 (10.2)
 mean BMI (sd) 27.7 (4.5) 27.4 (7.3) 27.9 (7.4) 28.2 (4.6) 27.3 (4.4) 27.6 (4.6) 27.4 (4.4)
 mean Elixhauser (sd) 0.88 (1.05) 1.05 (1.10) 0.60 (0.93) 0.81 (1.03) 0.66 (0.97) 0.76 (0.97) 0.83 (0.99)
 Marital status (%)
  married 608 (54.8) 579 (59.1) 506 (56.2) 384 (58.8) 2802 (59.1) 792 (59.7) 830 (59.4)
  unmarried 141 (12.7) 121 (12.4) 104 (11.6) 71 (10.9) 470 (9.9) 131 (9.9) 155 (11.1)
  divorced 165 (14.9) 136 (13.9) 153 (17.0) 97 (14.9) 757 (16.0) 207 (15.6) 190 (13.6)
  widow/widower 195 (17.6) 143 (14.6) 137 (15.2) 101 (15.5) 713 (15.0) 197 (14.8) 223 (16.0)
 Education attainment (%)
  primary 459 (41.4) 326 (33.3) 321 (35.7) 237 (36.3) 1820 (38.4) 473 (35.6) 528 (37.8)
  upper secondary 448 (40.4) 414 (42.3) 400 (44.4) 296 (45.3) 1847 (38.9) 572 (43.1) 578 (41.3)
  higher 202 (18.2) 239 (24.4) 179 (19.9) 120 (18.4) 1075 (22.7) 282 (21.3) 292 (20.9)
 median disposable income/year SEK (mean) 146,000 (172373) 157,900 (189558) 148,850 (181142) 156,000 (187402) 157,200 (213276) 158,900 (192642) 159,250 (200990)
 Preoperative PROs
  mean EQ-5D (sd) 0.39 (0.31) 0.40 (0.31) 0.41 (0.31) 0.38 (0.33) 0.42 (0.31) 0.40 (0.32) 0.46 (0.30)
  mean EQ VAS (sd) 53.9 (21.6) 52.0 (23.1) 51.6 (22.0) 50.8 (23.4) 55.9 (21.3) 52.2 (22.5) 56.2 (22.3)
  mean pain VAS (sd) 63.0 (15.2) 63.4 (15.7) 64.5 (14.8) 66.0 (14.8) 61.3 (16.0) 62.5 (15.9) 60.8 (15.8)
 Postoperative PROs
  mean EQ-5D (sd) 0.76 (0.24) 0.79 (0.23) 0.76 (0.26) 0.79 (0.23) 0.77 (0.24) 0.79 (0.24) 0.80 (0.22)
  mean EQ VAS (sd) 74.1 (20.5) 75.9 (20.2) 73.7 (21.5) 75.1 (21.1) 75.5 (20.1) 77.3 (19.6) 76.8 (19.4)
  mean pain VAS (sd) 15.5 (18.6) 14.3 (17.7) 14.4 (18.4) 13.8 (19.1) 14.8 (18.2) 11.7 (15.6) 14.3 (17.9)
  mean satisfaction VAS (sd) 17.8 (21.7) 15.0 (18.5) 16.8 (21.5) 15.6 (20.7) 17.6 (21.6) 13.2 (18.3) 16.1 (20.1)
  1. Legend: Higher values of EQ-5D and EQ VAS indicate better results. In contrary, higher values of pain and satisfaction VAS indicate worse results
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