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Table 4 Variance parameters for Model 5 for each of the nine procedures

From: Exploring variation in low-value care: a multilevel modelling study

Parameter Sentinel lymph node biopsy for early melanoma Carotid endarterectomy in asymptomatic high risk patients EVAR in asymptomatic high risk patients Knee arthroscopy for osteoarthritis ERCP without cholangitis or obstruction Abdominal hysterectomy Spinal fusion for low back pain Colonoscopy for constipation in people < 50 Endoscopy for dyspepsia for people < 55
Hospital level
 Variance 1.2 (0.6–2.5) 0.9 (0.4–1.7) 0.3 (0.1–0.7) 2.3 (1.6–3.3) 0.3 (0.1–0.7) 0.5 (0.3–0.8) 1.7 (0.6–4.3) 1.0 (0.7–1.4) 1.0 (0.7–1.3)
 VPC 24.4 (15.6–32.1) 20.3 (11.9–28.4) 7.8 (2.9–15.8) 36.8 (31.9–39.0) 8.5 (3.9–14.7) 13.4 (9.6–17.3) 28.7 (12.8–47.0) 21.3 (16.4–25.6) 20.9 (17.5–23.2)
 MOR 2.9 (2.1–4.5) 2.5 (1.9–3.5) 1.7 (1.3–2.2) 4.3 (3.3–5.7) 1.7 (1.4–2.2) 2.0 (1.8–2.3) 3.5 (2.0–7.3) 2.6 (2.2–3.1) 2.6 (2.3–3.0)
LHD level
 Variance 0.3 (0.0–1.2) 0.1 (0.0–0.8)   0.6 (0.1–1.8) 0.1 (0.0–0.5) 0.1 (0.0–0.3)   0.1 (0.0–0.5) 0.4 (0.1–1.0)
 VPC 5.0 (0.1–16.1) 3.1 (0.0–13.4)   9.5 (1.5–20.8) 2.3 (0.0–9.9) 1.9 (0.0–7.0)   2.6 (0.0–9.2) 8.4 (1.8–17.5)
 MOR 1.6 (1.0–2.9) 1.4 (1.0–2.4)   2.1 (1.3–3.6) 1.3 (1.0–1.9) 1.3 (1.0–1.7)   1.4 (1.0–2.0) 1.8 (1.4–2.6)
 MOR (LHD + hospital) 3.2 (2.1–6.3) 2.6 (1.9–4.6) 1.7 (1.3–2.2) 5.1 (3.4–8.6) 1.8 (1.4–2.8) 2.1 (1.8–2.7) 3.5 (2.0–7.3) 2.7 (2.2–3.7) 3.1 (2.4–4.3)
SLA level
 Variance 0.3 (0.1–0.7) 0.1 (0.0–0.3) 0.1 (0.0–0.2) 0.1 (0.1–0.1) 0.1 (0.0–0.2) 0.0 (0.0–0.0) 1.0 (0.6–1.6) 0.2 (0.1–0.2) 0.1 (0.1–0.1)
 VPC 6.1 (1.6–9.5) 1.8 (0.1–4.2) 1.6 (0.0–5.9) 1.4 (1.1–1.4) 1.4 (0.0–3.8) 0.2 (0.0–0.6) 16.4 (12.6–17.5) 3.6 (2.7–4.3) 2.2 (1.7–2.5)
 MOR 1.7 (1.3–2.3) 1.3 (1.0–1.6) 1.3 (1.0–1.6) 1.3 (1.3–1.4) 1.2 (1.0–1.5) 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 2.6 (2.0–3.4) 1.5 (1.4–1.6) 1.4 (1.3–1.4)