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Table 4 Correlation between Quantitiy/Quality of Clinics and Health Outcomes (Individual-level analysis)

From: The impacts of quantity and quality of health clinics on health behaviors and outcomes in Nigeria: analysis of health clinic census data

  Antenatal care (at least 1) Antenatal care (at least 4) Institutional delivery Postnatal care Complete Vaccination HAZ Stunting
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
% high HF within 5 km 0.243*** (0.023) 0.214*** (0.026) 0.125*** (0.019) 0.054** (0.026) 0.095*** (0.022) 29.258*** (10.451) −0.046* (0.025)
% high-middle HF within 5 km 0.170*** (0.021) 0.195*** (0.024) 0.052*** (0.018) 0.048** (0.024) 0.047** (0.020) 7.674 (9.612) −0.004 (0.023)
% low-middle HF within 5 km 0.187*** (0.022) 0.183*** (0.024) 0.038** (0.018) 0.070*** (0.025) 0.014 (0.021) 0.752 (9.988) 0.011 (0.024)
% low HF within 5 km(control) 0.000 (.) 0.000 (.) 0.000 (.) 0.000 (.) 0.000 (.) 0.000 (.) 0.000 (.)
Number of health clinics within 5 km −0.000 (0.000) −0.000 (0.000) 0.000 (0.000) 0.001** (0.000) 0.000 (0.000) 0.040 (0.195) 0.000 (0.000)
constant 0.359*** (0.073) 0.090 (0.081) 0.269*** (0.061) −0.031 (0.083) −0.059 (0.070) − 638.953*** (33.522) 1.404*** (0.082)
N 16,988 16,988 25,273 16,928 24,917 22,682 22,681
r2 0.052 0.048 0.060 0.017 0.023 0.017 0.013
LGA FE X X X X X X X
  1. Notes: Covariates include wealth index, mother’s education in years, marital status, mother’s height, mother’s age, # household members, # household members under 5, rural. The quality of health facility is determined by the following elements; If the clinic has 1) improved water supply, 2) improved sanitation, 3) electricity, 4) refrigerator/freezer for vaccines, 5) antenatal care service, 6) family planning service, 7) malaria treatment service, 8) emergency transport service, 9) child delivery service, 10) skilled birth attendant, 11) caesarian-section service, 12) measles vaccination service. We divide the health facilities into 3 categories – low, middle, and high quality. If the total number of services available out of 11 service is 4 or less, the clinic has low quality. If it is more than 4 but less than 8, then the clinic has middle quality. If it is more than 8, then the clinic has high quality. * significant at 10%; ** significant at 5%; *** significant at 1%