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Table 4 Effects of Medicare Policy and Covariates on Utilization (USPSTF based Measures). (Odds Ratio, Confidence Interval, P-value)

From: Effectiveness of Medicare cost-sharing elimination for Cancer screening on utilization

  Annual Mammogram (Women > = 40) Biennial Pap Smear (All women) Colonoscopy (All men and women > = 50)
Odds Ratio 95% Confidence Interval P-value Odds Ratio 95% Confidence Interval P-value Odds Ratio 95% Confidence Interval P-value
Transition: 2011–2012 1.04 0.80–1.35 0.78 0.70 0.21–2.37 0.57 1.05 0.83–1.34 0.68
Post-policy: 2013 1.15 0.76–1.75 0.50 0.52 0.06–4.24 0.54 1.01 0.71–1.44 0.95
Continuous Year 0.92 0.84–1.01 0.09 1.16 0.67–2.01 0.59 1.00 0.93–1.07 0.96
Having a private supplemental insurance 2.34 1.76–3.11 < 0.001 2.63 1.01–6.84 0.05 1.95 1.59–2.40 < 0.001
Having usual source of care
Income level: Poor (Ref: High Income) 0.86 0.56–1.33 0.50 1.18 0.21–6.70 0.85 1.11 0.78–1.57 0.56
Income level: Near poor 1.25 0.95–1.66 0.11 1.62 0.44–5.89 0.47 1.04 0.84–1.27 0.73
Income level: Middle 1.17 0.96–1.44 0.13 3.86 1.26–11.85 0.02 1.14 0.99–1.31 0.06
Education level: Less than high school (Ref: College) 0.52 0.28–0.95 0.04 1.42 0.21–9.65 0.72 1.03 0.76–1.41 0.85
Education level: High school 0.93 0.76–1.14 0.48 1.04 0.42–2.55 0.93 0.94 0.83–1.07 0.36
Current smoker 0.68 0.51–0.91 0.01 1.15 0.51–2.60 0.74 0.76 0.62–0.94 0.01
Living in metro area 1.04 0.84–1.28 0.73 0.81 0.33–2.00 0.65 1.03 0.90–1.17 0.69
Female 1.01 0.89–1.14 0.90
Being married 1.56 1.26–1.93 < 0.001 0.59 0.23–1.54 0.28 1.14 0.99–1.31 0.06
Age 1.03 0.99–1.06 0.13 0.98 0.95–1.02 0.27 1.00 0.98–1.02 0.99
Race/Ethnicity: Hispanic (Ref: Non-Hispanic White) 0.86 0.49–1.50 0.59 3.11 0.65–14.88 0.16 0.87 0.61–1.24 0.43
Race/Ethnicity: Non-Hispanic Black 1.26 0.88–1.81 0.21 2.21 0.81–6.07 0.12 1.34 1.08–1.66 0.01
Race/Ethnicity: Non-Hispanic other race 0.70 0.44–1.10 0.12 4.21 1.34–13.23 0.01 0.82 0.54–1.24 0.34
Disabled 1.31 0.80–2.14 0.29 2.78 0.52–14.73 0.23 0.85 0.63–1.15 0.30
Self-reported health: Very good (Ref: Excellent) 1.08 0.86–1.35 0.53 5.55 0.89–34.74 0.07 1.04 0.87–1.23 0.68
Self-reported health: Good 1.01 0.79–1.29 0.93 5.60 1.02–30.79 0.05 1.14 0.95–1.36 0.16
Self-reported health: Fair 0.86 0.63–1.17 0.33 7.67 1.43–41.24 0.02 1.19 0.95–1.49 0.12
Self-reported health: Poor 0.52 0.34–0.78 < 0.001 6.60 1.00–43.64 0.05 1.14 0.82–1.58 0.43
Not proficient English 0.59 0.22–1.59 0.30 0.49 0.21–1.16 0.10
Distrust Doctor 0.86 0.59–1.25 0.43 1.04 0.42–2.55 0.94 1.10 0.88–1.38 0.41
Bad Communication with Doctor 1.06 0.81–1.40 0.65 0.65 0.29–1.47 0.30 1.22 1.04–1.42 0.01
MA plan penetration 0.99 0.98–1.00 0.20 1.04 1.00–1.08 0.03 1.00 1.00–1.01 0.42
Physician Number/100,000 population 0.99 0.99–1.00 < 0.001 1.00 0.99–1.02 0.75 1.01 0.98–1.04 0.62
N 3997 331 19,024