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Table 3 Social and demographic characteristics

From: Examining the impact of WHO’s Focused Antenatal Care policy on early access, underutilisation and quality of antenatal care services in Malawi: a retrospective study

Variables Means or Proportions P-value
Pre- FANC Post- FANC Difference in means or proportions
Main outcome variables
 Early access 0.26 0.29 0.0007***
 Number of visits 4.04 3.76 0.0000***
 Standardized ANC quality index 0.71 0.74 0.0000***
Confounding variables
 Mother’s education level
  No education 0.27 0.21 0.0000***
  Primary 0.62 0.65 0.0369**
  Secondary 0.10 0.14 0.0000***
  Tertiary 0.00 0.01 0.0291**
 Type of residence
  Rural 0.85 0.84 0.0013**
  Urban 0.15 0.14 0.0013**
 HIV-test statistics
  Women who reported having ever been tested for HIV/AIDS 0.15 0.41 0.0000***
 Pregnancy risk indicators
  Age: 16 and below 0.02 0.02 0.6901
  Age: above 40 0.04 0.05 0.1182
  History of miscarriages 0.11 0.13 0.0059*
  History of caesarean deliveries 0.03 0.05 0.0004***
Media access
 Radio
  Not at all 0.23 0.22 0.3416
  Less than once a week 0.18 0.16 0.0014**
  At least once a week 0.12 0.16 0.0000***
  Almost every day 0.47 0.46 0.2414
 Television
  Not at all 0.90 0.83 0.0000***
  Less than once a week 0.05 0.08 0.0000***
  At least once a week 0.02 0.03 0.0000***
  Almost every day 0.03 0.06 0.0000***
  1. Notes: ***1% level of significance; ** 5% level of significance and *10% level of significance