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Table 3 Factors associated with active TB diagnosis among HHCs in Amharaa

From: Evaluation of facility and community-based active household tuberculosis contact investigation in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

  No TB TB OR (CI)b Adjusted OR (CI)c
Host risk factors
 Nutritional status
  No malnutrition 1083 (73) 8 (42) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
  Malnutrition 404 (27) 11 (58) 3.69 (1.19–11.44) 3.39 (1.19–9.64)
 Immuno-deficiencyd
  Absent 1450 (97) 16 (84) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
  Present 40 (3) 3 (16) 6.80 (1.90–24.34) 3.70 (0.86–15.87)
Environmental risk factors
 TB diagnosis in index case
  EPTB 1009 (68) 12 (63) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
  SS+ TB 134 (9) 6 (32) 3.77 (1.06–13.34) 7.43 (1.64–33.73)
  Clinically Dx TB 347 (23) 1 (5) 0.24 (0.03–1.87) 0.43 (0.05–3.68)
 HHC relationship to index case
  Other 598 (40) 13 (68) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
  Offspring/spouse 892 (60) 6 (32) 0.31 (0.11–0.89) 0.39 (0.15–1.02)
 Household sleeps in same room as livestock
  No 1085 (73) 9 (47) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
  Yes 405 (27) 10 (53) 2.98 (1.05–8.48) 3.36 (0.92–12.28)
 TB history in household
  No 1336 (90) 12 (63) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
  Yes 154 (10) 7 (37) 5.06 (1.77–14.44) 4.18 (1.51–11.55)
  1. Abbreviations: TB tuberculosis, EPTB extra-pulmonary TB, SS+ PTB sputum smear positive pulmonary TB, Dx diagnosed
  2. aPresented as n (%) unless otherwise indicated
  3. bBivariate GEE analysis, bold indicates statistical significance at p < 0.1
  4. cMultivariate GEE analysis, bold indicates statistical significance at p < 0.05
  5. dSelf-reported; includes HIV, severe kidney disease, diabetes, previous or current cancer treatment, previous TB disease, and symptoms/signs of primary immunodeficiency (e.g., recurrent or chronic infections)
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