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Table 3 The GLM analysis results of OOPa expenditures for rural population (n = 1,113,615)

From: Effect of a typical systemic hospital reform on inpatient expenditure for rural population: the Sanming model in China

Variable OOPa expenditure (1) OOPa expenditure (2) OOPa expenditure (3)
Reform (after vs. beforeb) −308.42*** (11.24) −347.59*** (12.73) −347.59** (105.36)
Age (≥65 years vs. < 65 yearsb) 292.88*** (6.52) 303.63*** (6.53) 303.63*** (58.56)
Level of Hospital (tertiary vs. secondary/primaryb) 1736.89*** (5.57) n/a n/a
Hospital region (in other region vs. in Sanmingb) 4515.74*** (12.77) n/a n/a
Chronic diseases (yes vs. nob) 380.67*** (9.46) 305.51*** (9.63) 305.51*** (85.84)
Official reimbursement rate 1889.99*** (26.67) 2013.92*** (28.72) 2013.92* (990.92)
Ceiling of annual compensation per patient (¥104 vs. < ¥104 b) −438.23*** (11.49) − 335.00*** (14.06) −335.00*** (77.84)
Intercept − 7377.12*** (27.45) 604.92*** (87.31) 604.92 (361.24)
Yearly fixed effects NO YES YES
Hospitals fixed effects NO YES YES
R-Square 0.277 0.316 0.316
Prob>F < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Clustered s.e. NO NO YES
  1. The results without year and hospital fixed effects are reported in column (1); the results with year and hospital fixed effects are reported in columns (2) and (3)
  2. Robust standard errors are reported in parentheses in columns (1) and (2); standard errors clustered at the hospital level are reported in parentheses in column (3)
  3. aOOP Out-of-pocket
  4. bwas the reference group
  5. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001
  6. Adjusted model adjusts for sex and individual annual net income