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Table 1 Patient characteristics and their association with residence in rental flats

From: Outpatient primary and tertiary healthcare utilisation among public rental housing residents in Singapore

  Stayed in public rental flat (n = 10,400) Not stayed in public rental flat (n = 136,705) All (n = 147,105) p value
Patient Demographics in Year 2012
Age, Mean (SD) 54.8 (18.0) 49.8 (17.1) 50.2 (17.2) < 0.001
Gender < 0.001
 Female (%) 5121 (49.2) 79,813 (58.4) 84,934 (57.7)  
 Male (%) 5279 (50.8) 56,892 (41.6) 62,171 (42.3)  
Ethnicity < 0.001
 Chinese (%) 6367 (61.3) 109,089 (79.8) 115,456 (78.5)  
 Indian (%) 1185 (10.0) 10,078 (7.4) 11,263 (7.7)  
 Malay (%) 2526 (24.3) 12,056 (8.8) 14,582 (9.9)  
 Others (%) 322 (3.1) 5482 (4.0) 5804 (3.9)  
 Deaths (%) 1063 (10.2) 5659 (4.1) 6722 (4.6) < 0.001
Medical Comorbidities in Year 2012
 Diabetes without complications (%) 2023 (19.5) 18,785 (13.7) 20,808 (14.1) < 0.001
 Hypertension (%) 3983 (38.3) 39,074 (28.6) 43,057 (29.3) < 0.001
 Hyperlipidemia (%) 3503 (33.7) 38,934 (28.5) 42,437 (28.8) < 0.001
 Asthma (%) 708 (6.8) 4250 (3.1) 4958 (3.4) < 0.001
 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (%) 700 (6.7) 2385 (1.7) 3085 (2.1) < 0.001
 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease with cor pulmonale (%) 603 (5.8) 1971 (1.4) 2574 (1.7) < 0.001
 Osteoarthritis (%) 1626 (15.6) 15,161 (11.1) 16,787 (11.4) < 0.001
 Hyperthyroidism (%) 69 (0.7) 1121 (0.8) 1190 (0.8) 0.086
 Hypothyroidism (%) 132 (1.3) 1782 (1.3) 1914 (1.3) 0.766
 Diabetes with complications (%) 279 (2.7) 1890 (1.3) 2169 (1.5) < 0.001
 Cerebrovascular accident (%) 689 (6.6) 4484 (3.3) 5173 (3.5) < 0.001
 Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 3–4 (%) 486 (4.7) 4128 (3.0) 4614 (3.1) < 0.001
 Chronic kidney disease stage V or End-stage renal failure (%) 268 (2.6) 1539 (1.8) 1807 (1.2) < 0.001
 Depression (%) 401 (3.9) 2409 (1.8) 2810 (1.9) < 0.001
 Schizophrenia (%) 151 (1.5) 410 (0.3) 561 (0.4) < 0.001
 Dementia (%) 63 (0.6) 450 (0.3) 513 (0.3) < 0.001
 Bipolar disease (%) 2 (0.02) 30 (0.02) 32 (0.02) 0.856
 Anxiety (%) 102 (0.8) 1188 (0.9) 1290 (0.9) 0.239
 Collagen vascular disease (%) 67 (1.0) 450 (0.3) 517 (0.4) < 0.001
 Parkinson disease (%) 50 (0.5) 431 (0.3) 481 (0.3) 0.004
 Epilepsy (%) 127 (1.2) 588 (0.4) 715 (0.5) < 0.001
 Coronary heart disease (%) 1047 (10.1) 8462 (6.2) 9509 (6.5) < 0.001
 Atrial fibrillation (%) 150 (1.4) 1136 (0.8) 1286 (0.9) < 0.001
 Heart failure (%) 379 (3.6) 1187 (0.9) 2196 (1.5) < 0.001
 Peripheral vascular disease (%) 161 (1.6) 963 (0.7) 1124 (0.8) < 0.001
 Hip fracture (%) 53 (0.5) 226 (0.2) 279 (0.2) < 0.001
 Spine fracture (%) 71 (0.7) 381 (0.3) 452 (0.3) < 0.001
 Chronic liver disease (%) 137 (1.3) 937 (0.7) 1074 (0.7) < 0.001
 Pressure ulcer (%) 39 (0.4) 204 (0.2) 243 (0.2) < 0.001
 Non-metastatic malignancy (%) 365 (3.5) 4519 (3.3) 4884 (3.3) 0.268
 Metastatic malignancy (%) 73 (0.7) 770 (0.6) 843 (0.6) 0.071
Past 1-year Healthcare Utilization in 2011
 Polyclinic attendances
  Number of visits, mean (SD) 3.12 (6.02) 2.40 (3.98) 2.45 (4.16) 0.001
 Specialist outpatient clinic attendances
  Number of visits, mean (SD) 2.16 (5.47) 2.53 (5.66) 2.50 (5.65) < 0.001
Emergency department attendances
  Number of visits, mean (SD) 0.43 (1.67) 0.13 (0.58) 0.15 (0.72) < 0.001
Hospital admissions
  Number of visits, mean (SD) 0.26 (1.00) 0.11 (0.49) 0.12 (0.54) < 0.001