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Table 4 Odds ratios from ordered logistic regression estimation of the correlates of perceived quality of services in Ghana, 2014

From: Subscribers’ perception of quality of services provided by Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme - what are the correlates?

Explanatory variables Full sample Urban subsample Rural subsample
(level 1)
all
OR(95% CI)
(level 2)
All
OR (95% CI)
(level 3)
male
OR (95% CI)
(level 4)
female
OR 95% CI)
(level 5)
all
OR 95% CI)
(level 6)
male
OR (95% CI)
(level 7)
female
OR (95% CI)
Age 0.95*** 0.94*** 0.94 0.90*** 0.97 0.90*** 0.97
(0.92–0.98) (0.90–0.97) (0.89–1.01) (0.85–0.95) (0.93–1.00) (0.85–0.96) (0.93–1.02)
Age square 1.00*** 1.00*** 1.00 1.00*** 1.00 1.00*** 1.00
(1.00–1.00) (1.00–1.00) (1.00–1.00) (1.00–1.00) (1.00–1.00) (1.00–1.00) (1.00–1.00)
Out-of-pocket payment status
 Doesn’t pay+ 1.00 1.00   1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Pays 0.85** 0.96 1.09 0.90 0.74*** 0.93 0.64***
(0.76–0.96) (0.81–1.13) (0.76–1.55) (0.75–1.09) (0.62–0.89) (0.70–1.25) (0.51–0.80)
Wealth status
 Poor+ 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Average 0.76*** 0.90 0.84 0.93 0.70*** 0.86 0.65***
(0.65–0.89) (0.71–1.15) (0.50–1.38) (0.69–1.25) (0.59–0.84) (0.59–1.28) (0.51–0.82)
 Rich 0.68*** 0.80 1.04 0.75 0.70** 0.41*** 0.83
(0.55–0.84) (0.61–1.05) (0.63–1.71) (0.54–1.03) (0.50–0.97) (0.23–0.74) (0.55–1.27)
Access to Media
 None+ 1.00   1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Partial 0.92 1.05 1.68 1.27 0.86 0.59 0.83
(0.77–1.12) (0.72–1.52) (0.92–3.09) (0.83–1.94) (0.69–1.07) (0.26–1.36) (0.63–1.09)
 Full 0.88 1.07 2.02** 1.26 0.69** 0.58 0.52***
(0.71–1.10) (0.73–1.59) (1.05–3.89) (0.81–1.97) (0.50–0.95) (0.22–1.49) (0.35–0.77)
Educational status
 No education+ 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Basic 0.97 1.02 1.17 0.94 0.92 1.18 0.89
(0.82–1.15) (0.78–1.35) (0.46–3.00) (0.72–1.25) (0.74–1.14) (0.72–1.94) (0.68–1.17)
 At least secondary 0.89 0.83 0.59 0.84 0.96 1.03 1.05
(0.76–1.03) (0.65–1.05) (0.26–1.33) (0.65–1.08) (0.80–1.16) (0.66–1.62) (0.81–1.37)
Region
 Greater Accra+ 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Western 2.58*** 2.46*** 1.92*** 2.78*** 3.28*** 0.60 6.26***
(2.02–3.29) (1.85–3.26) (1.17–3.13) (1.90–4.07) (2.18–4.95) (0.21–1.71) (3.73–10.48)
 Central 2.46*** 2.60*** 7.70*** 1.92*** 2.92*** 8.95*** 2.25***
(1.89–3.21) (1.84–3.67) (2.97–19.96) (1.28–2.89) (1.96–4.35) (2.53–31.63) (1.46–3.48)
 Volta 1.07 1.20 2.87*** 0.94 1.27 1.75 1.13
(0.79–1.46) (0.74–1.94) (1.44–5.73) (0.52–1.68) (0.84–1.93) (0.64–4.77) (0.68–1.86)
 Eastern 2.10*** 2.11*** 2.42*** 2.15** 2.63*** 1.95 3.14***
(1.47–3.00) (1.30–3.43) (1.40–4.19) (1.15–4.04) (1.56–4.44) (0.70–5.44) (1.63–6.05)
 Ashanti 0.85 0.73 3.15*** 0.44*** 1.39 2.45 1.06
(0.65–1.11) (0.52–1.01) (1.74–5.71) (0.29–0.67) (0.92–2.08) (0.85–7.06) (0.63–1.78)
 Brong-Ahafo 0.98 1.13 1.57 1.04 1.08 0.84 1.22
(0.76–1.26) (0.84–1.53) (0.85–2.92) (0.71–1.52) (0.72–1.64) (0.30–2.36) (0.70–2.12)
 Northern 1.83*** 2.45*** 5.06*** 1.95*** 2.00*** 2.26 2.01***
(1.37–2.46) (1.76–3.42) (2.31–11.10) (1.30–2.92) (1.30–3.07) (0.58–8.83) (1.21–3.33)
 Upper East 2.15*** 2.12*** 5.47*** 1.56 2.69*** 6.33*** 2.10***
(1.59–2.90) (1.38–3.27) (3.02–9.89) (0.94–2.58) (1.76–4.11) (1.96–20.39) (1.29–3.42)
 Upper West 1.83*** 2.65*** 6.34*** 2.01** 1.89** 2.90 1.60
(1.25–2.67) (1.72–4.08) (3.12–12.90) (1.12–3.60) (1.11–3.24) (0.94–8.92) (0.81–3.19)
Gender
 Female+ 1.00 1.00    1.00   
 Male 0.98 1.06    0.92   
(0.79–1.20) (0.81–1.39)    (0.65–1.28)   
Place of residence
 Rural+ 1.00       
 Urban 0.89       
(0.75–1.06)       
 Constant cut1 0.17*** 0.19*** 0.55 0.10*** 0.25*** 0.09*** 0.26***
(0.10–0.28) (0.09–0.40) (0.14–2.27) (0.04–0.24) (0.12–0.52) (0.02–0.46) (0.11–0.62)
 Constant cut2 0.73 0.92 2.89 0.50 1.01 0.32 1.21
(0.45–1.20) (0.46–1.85) (0.70–11.82) (0.22–1.15) (0.49–2.07) (0.06–1.68) (0.52–2.80)
Observations 10,065 4992 1302 3690 5073 1420 3653
F-statistic 14.48 (0.00) 8.06 (0.00) 4.36 (0.00) 6.29 (0.00) 8.36 (0.00) 5.60 (0.00) 8.07 (0.00)
  1. Survey design accounted for in estimations. P-values in parentheses for the F-statistic. OR denotes odds ratio; CI denotes confidence interval. + denotes reference category (OR = 1.00). ++Media use in this study means access to information on the NHIS (i.e. radio, TV etc.). *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05. Source: Computed by authors from 2014 GDHS