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Table 2 Description of the context dimensions

From: Context matters in implementation science: a scoping review of determinant frameworks that describe contextual determinants for implementation outcomes

Context dimension Description
Micro level of health care
 Patients Patients’ preferences, expectancies, attitudes, knowledge, needs and resources that can influence implementation
Meso level of health care
 Organizational culture and climate Shared visions, norms, values, assumptions and expectations in an organization that can influence implementation (i.e. organizational culture) and surface perceptions and attitudes concerning the observable, surface-level aspects of culture (i.e. climate).
 Organizational readiness to change Influences on implementation related to an organization’s tension, commitment or preparation to implement change, the presence of a receptive or absorptive context for change, the organization’s prioritization of implementing change, the organization’s efficacy or ability to implement change, practicality and the organization’s flexibility and innovativeness
 Organizational support Various forms of support that can influence implementation, including administration, planning and organization of work, availability of staff, staff workload, staff training, material resources, information and decision-support systems, consultant support and structures for learning
 Organizational structures Influences on implementation related to structural characteristics of the organization in which implementation occurs, including size, complexity, specialization, differentiation and decentralization of the organization
Macro level of health care
 Wider environment Exogeneous influences on implementation in health care organizations, including policies, guidelines, research findings, evidence, regulation, legislation, mandates, directives, recommendations, political stability, public reporting, benchmarking and organizational networks
Multiple levels of health care
 Social relations and support Influences on implementation related to interpersonal processes, including communication, collaboration and learning in groups, teams and networks, visions, conformity, identity and norms in groups, opinion of colleagues, homophily and alienation
 Financial resources Funding, reimbursement, incentives, rewards, costs and other economic factors that can influence implementation
 Leadership Influences on implementation related to formal and informal leaders, including managers, key individuals, change agents, opinion leaders, champions, etc.
 Time availability Time restrictions that can influence implementation
 Feedback Evaluation, assessment and various forms of mechanisms that can monitor and feed back results concerning the implementation, which can influence implementation
 Physical environment Features of the physical environment that can influence implementation, e.g. equipment, facilities and supies