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Table 1 Sample Characteristics of Studied Population (N = 4684)

From: One-year costs of medical admissions with and without a 30-day readmission and enhanced risk adjustment

  N %  
Readmission No Readmission Readmission No Readmission P values
All 842 3842 18.0 82.0  
Female 483 2204 57.4 57.4 0.988
Age 0.064
 65–74 297 1564 35.3 40.7  
 75–84 405 1588 48.1 41.3
 85+ 140 691 16.6 18.0
Race/Ethnicity 0.003
 Whites 682 3280 81.0 85.4  
 Blacks 87 294 10.3 7.7
 Hispanics 34 134 4.0 3.5
Charlson comorbidity categories
 Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) 100 491 11.9 12.8 0.551
 Congestive heart failure (CHF) 302 1111 35.9 28.9 < 0.001
 Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) 183 697 21.7 18.1 0.032
 Cerebrovascular disease 268 1002 31.8 26.1 0.001
 Dementia 62 242 7.4 6.3 0.220
 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) 341 1377 40.5 35.8 0.025
 Rheumatoid Disease 42 232 5.0 6.0 0.272
 Peptic Ulcer 44 176 5.2 4.6 0.463
 Mild liver disorder 17 24 2.0 0.6 0.001
 Diabetes 330 1295 39.2 33.7 0.002
 Diabetes + Complications 92 399 10.9 10.4 0.662
 Hemiplegia or Paraplegia 29 64 3.5 1.7 0.002
 Renal disease 137 483 16.2 12.6 0.011
 Cancer 192 721 22.8 18.8 0.006
 Moderate/severe Liver disease 9 15 1.1 0.4 0.024
 Metastic Cancer 60 140 7.1 3.6 < 0.001
 Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) 1 3 0.1 0.1 0.736
Ever-smoker 499 2220 59.3 57.8 0.458
Overweight/Obese 496 2360 59.0 61.4 0.204
Education 0.175
 < 12 years of education 299 1252 35.5 32.6  
 High school 428 2040 50.8 53.1
 College and above 115 550 13.6 14.3
Income, Household 0.104
 Poorest quartile 172 699 20.5 18.2  
 Second quartile 249 1099 29.6 28.6
 Top two quartiles 421 2044 50.0 53.2
Marital Status 0.301
 Married 385 1849 45.8 48.1  
 Widowed 358 1552 42.5 40.4
 Divorced/separated 74 316 8.8 8.2
 Never married 25 125 3.0 3.2
Living Type 0.952
 Community-Alone 281 1285 33.4 33.4  
 Community-Two people 401 1847 47.6 48.1
 Community-More than two 131 530 15.6 13.8
 Facility 29 180 3.5 4.7
Dual (Medicare-Medicaid) coverage 159 583 18.9 15.2 0.006
Death During Follow-up 278 740 33.0 19.3 < 0.001
Utilizations by hospital referral regions 0.009
 First quintile 100 610 11.8 15.9  
 Second quintile 137 625 16.3 16.3
 Third quintile 137 700 16.2 18.2
 Fourth quintile 255 1057 30.3 27.5
 Fifth quintile 213 851 25.4 22.1
Previous year utilization
 Days of stay 4.6 2.4 4.6 2.4 < 0.001
 Number of hospitalizations 0.7 0.4 0.7 0.4 < 0.001
 Overall Medicare spending ($) 39,004.5 25,103.7 39,004.5 25,103.7 < 0.001
 Medicare spending 1-year following index discharge 56,855.5 35,464.5 56,855.5 35,464.5 < 0.001
  1. Notes. Index condition, region and year are not included in this table